FAMOUS PERSONALITIES OF MODERN INDIA

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES OF MODERN INDIA

Agarkar, Gopal Ganesh (1856-95)

  • He was the editor of the Mahratta and the Kesari.

  • In 1888, he launched his own weekly Sudharak to popularize his ideas of social reform.

  • He denounced caste and untuchability and battled to increase the minimum marriageable age of boys and girls.

  • He worked with Tilak, M.G.Ranade and other social reformers of the period.

Ajit Singh (died Auguest 16, 1947)

  • An uncle of Bhagat Singh.

  • He was a close associate of Lala Lajpat Rai.

  • He was arrested along with the latter and deported to Mandalay in 1907.

  • He started a paper, Peshwa, and founded the revolutionary bharat Mata Society.

  • In 1908, he escaped from India and till 1947 he worked with the Ghadar Party, living in various countries.

Ali, Asaf (1888-1953)

  • First Indian Ambassador to USA 1947-48, and Governor of Orissa

Ambedkar, B.R. (1891-1956)

  • He was a great scholar who did M.Sc., and D.Sc. from London.

  • He was a great social worker, politician, writer and educationist.

  • In 1924 he founded the Depressed Classes Institute and in 1927, the Samaj Samata Sangha, to propagate the gospel of social equality among untouchables and caste Hindus.

  • He was appointed the Law Minister in the Interim Government and also Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee.


Amir Chand (1869-1915)

  • A revolutionary, who was arrested in connection with the Lahore Bomb and Delhi Conspiracy cases (the latter an alleged plot to kill the Viceroy Lord Hardinge).

Andrews, Charles Freer (Dinabandhu Andrews) (1871-1940)

  • He was closely associated with Rabindranath Tagore, G.K. Gokhale, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.

  • He also actively participated in Trade Union activities and was twice elected President of the Trade Union Congress, in 1925 and 1927.

  • He joined the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1925 and worked with Dr.Ambedkar in formulating the Harijan demands in 1933.

  • He earned the title of Dinabandhu from Mahatma Gandhi.

Aney, Madhav Srihari (1880-1968)

  • General Secretary, Anti-Communal Award Committee, 1935.

  • Member, Governor-General’s Executive Council, 1941.

Ansari, M.A. (1880-1936)

  • Organized the All-India Medical Mission to Turkey in 1912-13.

  • Elected President, Muslim League in 1920.

  • He was the founder of the nationalist educational institution, Jamie Millie Islamic, in 1920.

Saur Singh (1872-1916)

  • Credited with a vital role in Delhi Conspiracy case.

  • Remained underground for 18 months.

Azad, Abu Kalama (1888-1958)

  • Born in Mecca. He was a great scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Islamic theology.

  • Adopted the pen-name of Azad at the age of 16.

  • He was published the papers, such as Al-Ned-way, The Vail, Al-Hill and Al-Bligh.

  • He was elected President of the INC when only 35, the youngest to hold that office.

  • Azad was Education Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. Azad’s autobiographical narrative, India Wins Freedom, is both famous and controversial.

Azad, Chandra Shear (1906-31)

  • He was flogged for ridiculing the court during trial by declaring his name as Azad, his father’s as Swatantra and his home as prison.

  • From thence he became famous as Azad.

  • He was involved in Kakori Conspiracy case and Lahore Conspiracy case,

  • At Alfred Park, Allahabad, while fighting alone with the police it is said that he shot himself.

Bajaj, Seth Jamnalal (1889-1942)

  • Treasurer of the Congress, 1920-42; founder of the Gandhi Seva Sangh.

Balmukund, Bhai (1891-1919)

  • He was a member of the revolutionary group which threw a bomb at Viceroy Lord Hardinge in Delhi in 1912.

  • He was arrested in the Hardinge Bomb case and hanged.

Banerjea, Surendranath (1848-1925)

  • He successfully competed for the Indian Civil Service in 1869 but on technical grounds he was disqualified. After a court judgement in his favour, he was inducted into the Civil Services, but was soon dismissed on flimsy grounds.

  • He mooted the idea of holding a National Conference of representatives from Political associations all over the country.

  • He was published the paper Bengali.

  • In January 1921, the Governor of Bengal appointed him as minister of local self-government and health. He thus became the first Indian to hold that position.

Banerje, Manindra Nath (died 1934)

  • He was involved in the Kakori Conspiracy case. Killed his uncle J.N.Banerji, the Deputy Superintendent of Police investigating the Kakori Conspiracy case.

  • Died in the Fatehgarh Central Jail on June 20, 1934, after 66 days of hunger strike undertaken in protest against police ill-treatment.

Besant, Annie (1847-1933)

  • An Irish English Woman. She came to India in 1889 to work for the Theosophical Society and established her home in Varanasi.

  • She founded the Central Hindu College in 1898.

  • In 1907, she was elected President of the Theosophical Society.

  • In 1914 she began the publication of the commonweal and New India.

  • She founded the Home Rule Movement and was made President of the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1917.

  • She established the Indian Boy Scouts Association and also the Indian Women’s Association. The National University at Ayer was founded by her in 1918.

Braga Singh, Vardar (1907-31)

  • He was born in a Jet Sikh peasant family of the Punjab.

  • During his education at the DAV College, Lahore, he came under the influence of two teachers, Bhai Parmanand and Jai Chandra Vidyalankar.

  • He graduated from the National College, Lahore, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai.

  • He was elected as General Secretary in Hindustan Socialist Republican.

  • In 1925, he founded the Nav Jawan Bharat Sabha at Lahore to inculcate a spirit of revolution among the youth.

  • On April 8, 1929, he and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly in Delhi and latter offered themselves for arrest.

  • Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were hanged in the Lahore Central Jail on March 23, 1931.

Bhakna, Sohan Singh (1870-1968)

  • He was a Namdhari Sikh who went to USA in 1909 in search of employment. There he founded, in 1913, the Hind Association, later known as the Hind Association of the Pacific Coast.

  • Sohan Singh Bhakna was the founder President and Lala Hardayal the Secretary of this association of the Indian settlers in USA and Canada.

  • This association began to publish a paper Ghadar, after which the revolutionary activities of the association came to be known as the Ghadar Party.

  • Sohan Singh was associated with Komagata Maru ship incident in 1914.

  • He spent 16 years in the Andamans and other prisons in India. He was released in 1930 and devoted his remaining years to organizing Kisan Sabhas.

Bharadwaj, Ram Chandra (1886-1918)

  • A revolutionary journalist and editor of the Aftab, the Akash and the Bharat Mata.

  • He worked for the Ghadar Party and edited the Ghadar and also acted as the leader of the movement after Lala Hardayal’s departure from the USA.

Bharati, Subramania (1882-1921)

  • Eminent poet of Tamil renaissance, the title of Bharati was conferred on him by the raja of Ettaypuram (Tamil Nadu) when he was only eleven (Bharati is a popular name of Saraswati, the goddess of learning).

  • First Indian poet to write about the significance of Russian Revolution(1917)

Bhave, Vinayak Narahari (Vinoba Bhave) (1895-1982)

  • He actively participated in the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha, the Temple Entry Movement in Kerala, the Salt Satyagraha and the Dandi March in 1930.

  • He led the individual Satyagraha in 1940 and joined the Quit India Movement.

  • He was a staunch Gandhian and led the Bhoodan and Sarvodaya movements after independence.

  • He was awarded the Magsaysay Award.

Bismil, Ram Prasad (1897-1927)

  • A member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association/Army, he was arrested and sentenced to death for participating in the Kakori train dacoity on August 9, 1925.

Bonnerjee, Woomesh Chandra (1844-1905)

  • He was the first Indian to contest election to the British House of Commons.

  • He was twice elected president (1885-1892) of the INC and was a moderate in politics.

Bose, Anand Mohan (1847-1906)

  • In 1883, he founded a National Conference in Calcutta and launched an agitation to protest against the Vernacular Press Act and the Ilbert Bill. He was president of the Madras session of the INC (1898),

Bose, Khudiram (1889-1908)

  • He was member of the revolutionary society the Yungantar of Barindra Ghosh. He along with Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at the carriage of Kingsford, an English Judge at Muzaffarpur (Bihar).

Bose, Rasbehari (1886-1945)

  • He was associated with the Yuganthar and the Ghadar Party. In 1912 he and Basant Biswas threw a bomb at the procession of Viceroy Hardinge at chandni Chowk, Delhi.

Bose, Subhas Chandra (1897-1945)

  • Born at Cuttack in Orissa, he appeared for the Indian Civil Service in 1920 and came out fourth in order of merit, but resigned before completing his probation in the Civil Services.

  • He resigned the Presidentship of the INC in April 1939 and founded the All-India Forward Block.

  • The Japanese Government handed over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to him, which he renamed Shaheed and Swaraj Islands respectively.

  • First Man to address the Gandhi as the ‘Father of Nation’.

Cama, Bhikaiji, Madam (1861-1936)

  • India’s first and most famous woman revolutionary who worked in close cooperation with many well-known nationalist and revolutionary leaders, such as Dadabhai Naoroji, Shyamji Krishna Verma, Veer Savarkar, Sardar Singh Rana.

  • She also came into contact with the Russian revolutionaries and corresponded with Lenin, who invited her to visit Moscow.

  • She was also the moving spirit in the Abhinav Bharat Society of the Indian residing in Europe.

  • In 1907 she attended the Socialist Congress at Stuttgart, where she unfurled the first Indian National Flag designed by her, which was indeed the parent and precursor of the flag of independent India, the only difference in colour being the change of orange into red.

  • He was called as “the mother of Indian revolutionaries”.

Cama, Kharshedji Rustamji (1831-1909)

  • Cama was the proprietor of the weekly Parsi paper, the Rast Goftar, an organ of the new progressive social reforms.

  • The famous revolutionary Madam Bhikaiji Cama was his daughter-in-law.

Chapekar Brothers : Damodar (1870-1897) Balkrishna (1873-1899) and Wasudeo (1879-1899)

  • The three Chapekar brothers from Maharashtra came under the influence of B.G. Tilak and organized an association for physical and military training which they called “the Society for the Removal of Obstacles to the Hindu Religion”.

  • In June 1897, during Queen Victoria’s diamond jubilee celebrations, Demodar and Bal Krishna Chapekar murdered two British Officers – Rand and Lt. Amherst in Poona. They were arrested, tried and hanged. The third brother Wasudeo murdered Ganesh Shankar Dravid, who had got Damodar and Balkrishna arrested.

  • After a short trial he was sentenced to death and hanged on May 8, 1899.

Charlu, P.Ananda (1843-1908)

  • One of the ‘brave 72’ who founded the Indian National Congress and a pioneer of public life in the South, Played a leading role in making the Madars Mahajan Sabha a great public institution in the Pre-Congress era.

  • President of Indian National Congress in 1891, later its secretary.

Chatterjee, Jogesh Chandra (1895-1969)

  • A revolutionary who was associated with the activities of the Anushilan Samiti in Bengal.

  • He was one of the founders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

  • He was arrested in the Kakori Conspiracy case and sentenced to transportation for life.

  • Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1940. Jogesh Candhra Chatterjee spend about 24 years in various jails, of which he spent about two and a half years on hunger strike on several occasions, the longest being 142 days at a stretch.

Chatterji, Bankim Chandra (1838-1894)

  • He wrote his first novel Durgeshnandini in 1865. He composed his famous patriotic song Bande Mataram sometime in 1874, which he later on included in his most famous novel Anandmath. It was sung in the 1887 session of Calcutta.

Chaudhuri, Asutosh (1860-1924)

  • Asutosh was the founder and guiding spirit of the National Council of Education, which was set up in 1905 during the Swadeshi Movement, for the students boycotting the government institutions and universities.

  • For sometime he was also the President of the Adi Brahmo Samaj.

Chintamani, C.Y. (1880-1941)

  • One of the finest editors of pre-independence India and one of the founders of the Liberal Party. His name is closely associated with The Leader published from Allahabad.

  • He edited the paper, The Indian People, an Allahabad-based weekly and the Hindustan Review in Patna.

Das, Chitta Ranjan (Deshbandhu) (1870-1925)

  • A great nationalist and famous jurist who defended Aurobindo Ghosh in the Alipore Conspiracy Case (1908).

  • He was elected President of the Congress session held in Ahmedabad in 1921. He was a founder of the Swarajya Party.

  • He presided over the All-India Trade Union Congress at Lahore in 1923 and at Ahmedabad in 1924.

Das, Jatindra Nath (1904-29)

  • One of the greatest revolutionaries, he was arrested on June 14, 1929 for complicity in the Lahore Conspiracy.

  • Died in Lahore jail on September 13, 1929 after observing fast for sixty-three days.

Datta, Kalpana (1913-78)

  • A famous woman revolutionary of Bengal and a member of the revolutionary secret organization led by Surya Sen, leader of the Chittagong Armoury Raid. She participated in various revolutionary activities and was sentenced to transportation for life in the Chittagong Armoury Raid case.

  • After her release in 1939 she joined the Communist Party of India and married the Communist leader P.C.Joshi.

Derozio, Henry Louis Vivian (1809-31)

  • A talented Eurasian (his father was Portuguese and his mother an Indian) and one of the pioneers of the renaissance in Bengal.

Desai, Bhulabhai (1877-1946)

  • In 1944, in an effort to bring about a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League, he entered into extensive private negotiations with Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan leading to the Desai-Liaquat Pact on an Interim Government.

  • His last great act, before his death in May 1946, was his defence of the Indian National Army prisoners.

Desai, Mahadev (1892-1942)

  • He was Mahatama Gandhi’s Secretary for 25 years and participated in all the movements from the Champaran Satyagraha (1917) to the Quit India movement (1942).

  • Aga Khan Palace, where he died on August 15, 1942. He also edited The Independent published from Allhabad and the Navajivan of Ahmedabad.

Deshmukh, Gopal Hari (Lokhitwadi) (1823-92)

  • He edited the Lokhitwadi, a monthly magazine in Marathi, which advocated widow remarriage and the raising of the social status of women, and condemned child marriage, caste system and slavery in any form.

  • He started the Punarvivah Mandal (Widow Remarriage Institute) at Ahmedabad. Lokhitwadi helped to start the Marathi newspapers, Induprakash and Jnyanprakash, in Bombay and Poona respectively.

Dev, Acharya Narendra (1889-1956)

  • He was a founder member of the Congress Socialist Party, Vice-Chancellor of Lucknow and Banaras Universities for several years.

Dhingra, Madan Lal (1887-1909)

  • He was associated with the Indian Home Rule Society, the Abhinav Bharat Society and the India House in London.

  • To avenge the atrocities committed by the British in India, he shot dead Curzon Wyllie, an Advisor to the Secretary of State of India, and Cowas Lalcaca at the meeting of the Indian National Association in London on July 1, 1909.

  • When the death-sentence was pronounced on him, he told the Judge : “I am proud to have the honour of laying down my humble life….. A son like myself has nothing else to offer to the mother, but his own blood, and so I have sacrificed the same on her altar.” “The only lesson required in India at present is to learn how to die and the only way to teach it is by dying ourselves. Therefore, I die and glory in my martyrdom.

Dutt, Ramesh Chandra (1848-1909)

  • The Economic History of British India, India in the Victorian Age, and History of Civilization in Ancient India are the various books written by him.

Gaidinliu, Rani (1915-81)

  • In 1932, she was arrested and spent fourteen years in British jails. Nehru was greatly impressed by her activities and he described her as the ‘Rani of the Nagas’.

Gandhi, Kasturba (1869-1944)

  • She was arrested on August 9, 1942; died February 24, 1944 in prison.

Gandhi, Mohandas Karmachand (1869-1948)

  • Also known as Bapu and the Father of the Nation-he was the leading figure in the Indian national movement.

Ghose, Rash Behari (1845-1921)

  • He called the extremists “Pestilential demagogues” and “irresponsible agitators”. He was the president of 1907 Surat Session

Ghose, Aurobindo (1872-1950)

  • A leading Bengali revolutionary who later turned yogi. For nearly thirteen years he was in England, including Cambridge for his education.

  • He was one of the propounders of the programme of Swadeshi and boycott. He expressed the view that political freedom was “the life and breath of our nation” and dubbed colonial self-government as a political monstrosity.

  • In 1910, he retired to Pondicherry, where he spent his life in meditation and spiritual pursuits.

  • His article is called as ‘Lamps for the Old’

Ghose, Barindra Kumar (1880-1959)

  • Barindra started a Bengali weekly, the Yugantar in 1906, to propagate revolutionary ideas. In 1907, he started the Maniktala Party for organizing revolutionary terrorist activities.

  • After spending 10 years in the Andaman prison, he was released in 1919.

  • The Statesman and Basumati, the oldest Bengali daily, as its Editor.

Ghosh, Lal Mohan (1849-1909)

  • He presided over the 19th annual session of the Indian National Congress, held at Madras in 1903.

Gokhale, Gopal Krishna (1849-1909)

  • In 1905 he founded the Servants of India Society and went to England and South Africa to further the cause of India’s struggle for freedom. On his death in 1915 Tilak called him the “diamond of India”.

Haq, A.K.Fazul (1873-1962)

  • He was one of the founders of the All India Muslim League at Dacca in 1906. From 1916 to 1921, he was the President of the All India Muslim League. He was instrumental in bringing about the Lucknow Pact of 1916 between the Congress and League.

  • He represented the Muslim League at the Round Table Conferences (1930-33).

  • He formed a new party known as the Krishak Praja Party and formed a Coalition Government with the Muslim League in Bengal.

  • During 1938-43, he was the Premier of Bengal.

Hardayal, Lala (1884-1939)

  • He was a founder the Ghadar Party in the USA.

  • He had close contact with Shaymaji Krishana Varma and V.D.Savarkar.

  • He started a journal the Ghadar in USA.

  • He started another anti-British paper, the Bandemataram. From Switzerland, he went to Germany and opened an Oriental Bureau for bringing about an armed revolution in India. In USA he was appointed as a Professor of Sanskrit and Philosophy at the Berkeley University.

Hare, David (1775-1842)

  • A Scotsman, who devoted the best part of his life, over four decades, to the spread of western education and the foundation of the nineteenth-century renaissance.

  • He was closely associated with the Young Bengal movement and was the founder of the Hindu College in Calcutta.

  • It was through his efforts that the Calcutta Medical College was founded.

Hedgewar, Keshavrao, Baliram (Dr.) (1889-1940)

  • A medical graduate, who devoted his whole life to political activity. In his early career he was associated with the Congress and actively participated in the Home Rule movement under the leadership of Tilak But his greatest contribution was the foundation of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha on Vijayadashmi day, September 27, 1925.

Hume, Allan Octavian (A.O.Hume) (1829-1922)

  • He had studied medicine and surgery and was a great naturalist and botanist.

  • Founder Secretary of INC.

Husain, Zakir, Dr. (1897-1969)

  • Formulated the Wardha Scheme of Education. He was Governor of Bihar (1957-62) and Vice President of India (1962-67) and also President of India. First President to have died while in office.

Imam, Syed Hasan (1871-1938)

  • A nationalist who was involved with the Congress and was its president in 1918. Joined the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Iqbal, Muhammad, Sir (1873-1938)

  • He wrote the famous nationalist song: “Sara Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara, but later on he was attracted to the Muslim League.

  • He presided over the Allahabad session of the League in 1930.

Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891)

  • He was a social reformer of Bengal, was given the title of Vidayasagar by the authorities of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, where he was the Principal.

Iyengar, S.Kasturi Ranga (1859-1923)

  • He was a prominent journalist and political leader from Madras, who acquired the paper The Hindu in 1905.

Iyer, S.Subramania (1842-1924)

  • He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He is popularly knhown as the ‘Grand Old man of South India’.

  • He served as the President of the All India Home Rule League founded by Mrs. Annie Besant in September 1916.

  • He was the first Indian to be appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of the Madras University.

Jadonang (1905-31)

  • Jadonang started his social and religious reforms with the help of his trusted followers, including Rani Gaidinliu.

  • He proclaimed the establishment of the Independent ‘Naga Raj’. It greatly alarmed the British Government, which arrested Jadonang and his followers.

  • Jadonang was sentenced to death and he was hanged on August 29, 1931.

Jayakar, Mukund Ramarao (1873-1959)

  • Leader of the Swaraj Party in the Bombay Legislative Council.

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1875-1948)

  • He was strongly disapproving of the Non-Cooperation movement, resigned from the Congress and thereafter he fully plunged himself in the communal politics of the League.

  • In 1929, he rejected the Nehru Report.

  • He condemned the Quit India Movement and asked the Indian Muslims to abstain from the movement.

Joshi, Narayan Malhar (1875-1955)

  • He founded the All-India Trade Union Congress in 1921 and remained its Secretary till 1929.

  • For 26 years after 1921, he was an elected member of the Central Assembly, Delhi, and was called the “father of the Assembly”.

Kairon, Pratap Singh (1901-65)

  • He soon became an important worker of the Desh Bhagat Parvar Sahaik Committee (a nationalist committee for providing help and relief to political supporters).

  • He started a journal entitled New Era.

Karve, Dhondo Keshav (alias Annasaheb Maharishi Karve) (1858-1962)

  • He devoted his entire life to the uplift of widows and to the cause of female education.

  • He founded the Vidhava Vivahottejak Mandali (Society for the Promotion of Widow Remarriage).

  • In 1898 he started the Mahisashrams or Widow Homes in Poona.

  • He started Mahila Vidyalaya or Women’s School in 1907 and in the following year the Nishkam Karma Math.

  • In 1916, he founded the Indian Women’s University. In 1944, he founded the Samata Sangh or the Association for the Promotion of Human Equality.

Katju, Kailash Nath (1887-1969)

  • He defended prisoners of the Meerut Conspiracy case, 1933.

  • He was the Minister for Justice, Industries and Development, in the Congress ministry.

Kelkar, Narsimha Chintamani (1872-1927)

  • Lokmanya Tilak’s most prominent disciple and colleague; Editor, Maharatta.

Khan, Ajmal, Hakim (1865-1927)

  • President of the 36th session of the INC in 1921.

Khan, Fazli-i-Hussain (1877-1936)

  • He was founder of the Unionist Party in the Punjab in 1920.

Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar (Frontier Gandhi) (1890-1988)

  • Born in a village of Peshawar district (now in Pakistan) of the erstwhile NWFP.

  • He inculcated the ideas of nationalism into the minds of the Pathans.

  • About fourteen of these years in jail. In 1929 he founded the Khudai Khidmatgar (literally, God’s servants) a peace crops of dedicated workers who gave him his title His title Fakhr-e-Afghan (i.e. pride of the Afghan)

  • He was vehemently opposed to the partition of India.

  • After partition, he started an active campaign for the creation of Pakhtoonistan and was jailed a number of times by the successive Pakistani regimes.

  • He was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi, Badshah Khan, Fakhr-e-Afghan.

  • He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1987.(First foreigner to be awarded)

Khan, Liaquat Ali (1895-1951)

  • Entered into private negotiations in 1944 with Bhulabhai Desai for a pact between the Congress and the League, which he later denied. First Finance Minister in the Interim Central Government, First Prime Minister of Pakistan. Assassinated at Rawalpindi in October 1951

Khan, Syed Ahmad, Sir (1817-99)

  • He founded Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh.

Lahiri, Rajendra Nath (1898-1927)

  • A great revolutionary and a leading member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

  • He played an active part in the Kakori Dacoity

Lajpat Rai, Lala (1865-1928)

  • Famous Arya Samajist

  • He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari

  • In 1907, he organized and led a massive agrarian movement in the Punjab, for which he was deported, along with Ajit Singh to Burma.

  • In 1920, he presided over the Calcutta session of the Congress.

  • Every blow aimed at me would prove to be a nail in the coffin of the British Imperialism in India.

  • Founded an Urdu daily, the Bande Mataram

  • English weekly, The People.

  • Young India in the USA.

  • England’s Debt to India, India’s will to freedom. Call to young India,

  • Unhappy India.

Mahatma Hans Raj

  • He founded the DAV COLLEGE, Lahore.

  • National college, Lahore

  • Sardar Bhagat Singh

  • Sukh Dev were two illustrious products.

Madhavan, T.K. (1886-1930)

  • It was the Vaikom Satyagraha, organized by him in 1924.

  • That raised him to the zenith of leadership.

  • The movement started on March 30, 1924 and lasted for twenty months.

  • The objective of the movement was to get the doors of the temples opened for non-caste Hindus also, to whom.

  • All his life Madhavan was guided by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Besides social reforms

  • From 1917 onwards he was the Editor of the Desabhimani daily.

Mahendra Pratap, Raja (1886-1964)

  • One of the few Indian princes who actively participated in the freedom struggle and the revolutionary movement outside India.

  • From 1914 to 1945 for three decades, he lived abroad in the USA, Germany, China, Afghanistan, Japan, etc.

  • He set up a Provisional Government of Free India in Kabul with himself as the President and Maulana Barkatullah as the Prime Minister.

  • He founded the Prem Vidyalaya, a technical college, at Brindaban (U.P.)

  • Prem in Hindi and Nirbal sewak in Hindi and Urdu.

Malabari, Behramji (1853-1912)

  • Great Parsi social reformer and a close associate of Dadabhai Naoroji, M.G. Ranade.

  • He founded the seva sadan – a social service organization and was the Editor of a newspaper, Voice of India.

Malaviya, Madan Mohan (1861-1946)

  • Hindustan, the Indian Union, Abhyudaya, Maryada, Kisan

  • The Leader in English.

  • INC and was its President in 1909.

  • A devout Hindu, he was a founder member of the Hindu Mahasabha.

  • Banaras Hindu University in 1916.

  • Chancellor from 1919- to 1938.

Meera Behn (1892-1982)

  • Madeleine Slade in England.

  • Meera Behn by Mahatma Gandhi whose disciple associate she was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1982.

Mehta, Phirozeshah (1845-1915)

  • Uncrowned King of Bombay.

  • Founder of the Bombay Presidency Association and the INC.

Mitra, Dinabandhu (1830-73)

  • Neel Darpan Natakam, 1860 from Dacca.

Mitra, Naba Gopal (1842-1894)

  • Since all the institutions founded by him began with the prefix ‘National’, he is popularly known as ‘National Mitra’.

  • Naba Gopal founded numerous institutions, all of which bore the prefix National, National School, National Gymnasium, National Circus, National Theatre.

Mohammad Ali, Maulana (1878-1931)

  • Nationalist, orator, journalist.

  • President, 38th session of the Indian National Congress, 1923 at Kakinada.

Mukherjee, Jatindranath (1879-1915)

  • Revolutionary from Bengal; was an ardent follower of vivekanand and Aurobindo Ghose and an active member of the revolutionary societies

  • Jugantar, Anushilan samiti, Ghadar party.

  • On September 9, 1915 he had an encounter with an Army and Police Unit in Balasore, in which he was mortally wounded.

  • On account of his uncommon fearlessness and super human physical strength.

  • Bagha Jatin” or “Jatin the Tiger”

Munshi, K.M. (1887-1971)

  • He was the founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan and a member of the Constituent Assembly.

Naicker, E.V. Ramaswami (1879-1973)

  • A sovereign and casteless Dravidanadu known as Periyar to his followers.

Naidu, Sarojini (1879-1949)

  • First Indian woman President of the Indian National Congress, at the 40th annual session at Kanpur in 1925.

Naoroji, Dadabhai (1825-1917)

  • He was called as the ‘Grand Old man of India’.

  • In 1865 he founded the London India Society in collaboration with W.C.Bonnerjee with the objective of publicizing Indian grievances.

  • He was the first Indian to be elected to the British House of Commons in 1892 on Liberal Party ticket.

  • He took a leading part in founding the INC and was thrice (in 1886, 1893 and 1906) elected to be its president.

  • He enunciated the ‘Drain Theory’ in his long paper, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.

Nehru, Jawharlal (1889-1964)

  • He wrote the books The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History and A Bunch of Old Letters.

Pal, Bipin Chandra (1858-1932)

  • He is popularly known as father of revolutionary thought in India.

  • He published Paridar sak, a weekly.

  • His most famous work being Memories of My Life and Times (in two volumes)

Pant, Govind Ballabh (1887-1961)

  • He actively participated in the freedom struggle and was badly injured in a lathi charge while leading a demonstration against the Simon Commission (1927).

Paramanand, Bhai (1874-1947)

  • He was one the leading figures of the Ghadar Party in USA. He was a close associate of Lala Hardayal and actively helped in organizing the activities of the Ghadar Party.

  • He was arrested and tried in the first Lahore Conspiracy case.

Patel, Vallabhbhai, Sardar (1875-1950)

  • He launched another peasant movement in 1928, Bardoli taluka of Gujarat, popularly known as the Bardoli Satyagraha.

  • In recognition of his great success in organizing the later movement, Mahatma Gandhi called him Sardar.

Patel, Vitalbhai (1873-1933)

  • He died in exile in Swtizerland in 1933.

Pathak, Sohal Lal (1883-1916)

  • He was the editor of a journal, Bande Mataram.

Patwardhan, Achyut S. (1905-71)

  • Founder member of the Congress Socialist Party in 1934.

Phadke, Wasudev Balwant (1845-83)

  • One of the earliest revolutionaries who organized the members of the Ramoshi tribe in Bombay presidency into a trained fighting force.

Prasad, Rajendra, Dr. (1884-1963)

  • Congress leader from Bihar, he was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly. After the promulgation of the Constitution, he became the first President of India.

Radhakrishnan (1888-1967)

  • Born in a religious Brahmin family of Tamil Nadu.

  • He was ambassador of USSR.

  • Vice-President of India twice (1952-66 and 1957-62) and President of India (1962-66)

  • He was author of following : Indian Philosophy, The Future Civilization and Idealistic View of Life.

Rajagopalachari . C (1878-1972)

  • Shrewd Political leader and a clear thinker, he was Chief Minister of Madras (1937-39), minister Union Government 1947.

  • The first and last governor General of India.

Rajguru, Shivram (1908-31)

  • A Maharashtrian Brahmin and a close associate of Bhagat Singh.

Ramabai, Pandita

  • A great woman social worker and reformer from Maharashtra, who embraced Christianity in 1883.

  • In 1889, she founded the Sharda Sadan, for the education of widows and other women.

  • She founded the Mukti Mission to provide shelter to destitute women and a rescue home, Kripa Sadan for fallen women.

  • She wrote the book ‘sthripurushthulna’

Roy, Manabendra Nath (M.N.Roy) (1887-1954)

  • Communist leader, who was closely associated with several Communist leaders of the world.

  • At the invitation of Lenin he visited the former Soviet Union. He was elected a full member of the Communist International in 1924.

  • He was arrested in the Kanpur Communist Conspiracy case and was jailed for six years.

  • He then founded the Radical Democratic Party and also an organization of labour known as the Indian Federation of Labour. In his later years, he dissolved the Radical Democratic Party and became a ‘Radical Humanist’.

  • He was a founder of an organization known as the International Humanists.

Sanyal, Sachindra Nath (1895-1945)

  • He organized an uprising of the soldiers of the 7th Rajput Regiment stationed in U.P. But the plan leaked out and he was arrested.

  • He was a founder of the Hindustan Republican Association. His autobiographical work, Bandi Jiwan became a Bible for the Indian revolutionaries.

Sapru, Tej Bahadur (1875-1949)

  • He was a founder and also the President of a National Convention, founded with the object of India’s constitutional development.

  • He was instrumental in enabling Mahatma Gandhi to attend the Second Round Table Conference.

Saraswati, Sahajanand, Swami (1889-1950)

  • In 1929, he founded the Bihar Kisan Sabha under his leadership. He came to be addressed as Kisan Pran (Life of Kisans).

Sarda, Har Bilas (1867-1955)

  • An Arya Samajist leader from Rajasthan.

  • He was the author of the Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, which is popularly known as the Sarda Act.

  • He also presided over the Indian National Social Conference, held in Lahore in 1929, along with the historic session of the Congress.

Satyamurti. S (1887-1943)

  • He was popularly known as the Firebrand of South India.

Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar (1883-1966)

  • In 1899, he founded the first revolutionary society, the Mitra Mela (Friends Assembly), which in 1904 was named as the Abhinav Bharat Society (New India Society)

  • In London, he was a close associate of Madan Lal Dhingra who murdered Curzon Wyllie with a bomb.

  • In 1910, he was arrested in London.

  • He spent ten years in the Andaman jail – from 1911 to 1921 and three years in other prisons. After his early release in 1924.

  • He was elected President of the Hindu Mahasabha for five successive years, 1937-42.

Sen, Surya (1894-1934)

  • He founded the Chittagong Republican Army.

  • On April 18, 1930, the Chittagong (or Indian) Republican Army under Surya Sen raided the two Government armories, and completely disrupted the telephone, telegraph and railway system on account of which Chittagong was cut off completely from the rest of India.

  • Surya Sen proclaimed the formation of a free National Revolutionary Government.

  • He was Captured in February 1933, betrayed by one of his followers, and was sentenced to death.

Shahu, Chattrapati (Maharaja) (1874-1922)

  • The Maharaja of Kolhapur, he was the earliest Indian ruling prince to have taken keen interest in the social and religious reforms for the so-called backward classes.

  • He tried to restrict child marriages and encourage widow remarriage.

  • His greatest work was in the direction of education.

  • He was the first among, the Indian princes to take the courage to ban untouchability in his State.

Shraddhanand, Swami (1856-1926)

  • A leading Arya Samajist educationist and nationalist leader from the Punjab. He started a weekly, Satya Dharma Pracharak, from Jullundur and in 1902 founded the Gurukula at hardward.

  • He was the Chairman of the Reception Committee of the Amritsar session of the Congress in 1919.

  • A Muslim fanatic murdered him in 1926.

Shri Narayan Guru (1845-1928)

  • In spite of belonging to a lower caste, he installed the Siva idol at Aravipuram in 1888. The Aravipuram prastistha was a unique event of historical importance becasue a person of the lower caste, forbidden from entering the temple had himself consecrated the Siva image in a temple. On the wall of temple he inscribed the following words : “Devoid of diving walls of caste, of race, or hatred of rival faith, we all live here in brotherhood.

  • Education and organization were amongst his many slogans for freedom and strength.

  • The centenary of the Aravipuram pratishta was celebrated on Shivaratri Day of 1988.

Sitaram Raju, Alluri (1897-1924)

  • Rampa tribal uprising in 1923-24 in Andhra Pradesh. He was killed in an encounter with the Army.

Sitaramayya, Pattabhi, Dr. (1880-1950)

  • In 1939 as a candidate supported by Gandhi ,he lost the Congress presidential election to Subhas Bose

Tagore, Rabindranath (1861-1941)

  • He won the Nobel Prize for the literature ‘Gitanjali’ in 1913.He was the First Asian to have been awarded the Nobel Prize.


Thakkar Bapa (alias Amritlal) (1869-1951)

  • He was the General Secretary of the Harijan Sevak Sangh.

  • He founded the Gond Seva Sangh, now called the Vanavasi Seva Mandal in Mandala District, Madhya Pradesh.

Udham Singh (1899-1940)

  • He murdered Michael O’Dwyer, who had ordered the firing on the innocent People.

  • O’Dwyer’s killing took place in London in March 1940. Udham Singh was arrested and sentenced to death.

Yajnik, Indulal (1892-1972)

  • He actively participated in the Home Rule Movement and Kaira Satyagraha.

  • He started two Gujarati Monthlies – Navjivan Ane Satya and Yugadharm and a daily – Nutan Gujarat.

  • He became secretary of the Antyaj Sava Mandal, with Thakkar Bapa as its president.

  • He was a founder of the Gujarat Vidyapeeth.

Waddedar, Preetilata (1911-32)

  • Woman revolutionary from Bengal, who was an active member of the Jugantar and the Chittagong Republican Army.

  • She led a group of revolutionaries and attacked a European club at Pahartali on September 24, 1932, in which a number of Europeans were killed or wounded.

  • After successfully raiding the club, she swallowed poison and committed suicide with a written statement in her pocket.

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