Post Independence: Important Events

H ISTORY MATERIAL

C hronology of Important Events

  • 1946
  • The basic tenets of India’s foreign policy were outlined by Nehru in his broadcast to the nation on September 7, 1946
  • 1947
  • Portfolios held
Prime Minister

Nehru (external affairs also)

Home & Intelligence Bureau

Sardar patel

Food & Agriculture

Rajendra Prasad

Education

Azad

Finance

R K Shanmukkam Chetty

Defence

Sardar Baldev Singh

Law

BR Ambedhkar

  • First Asian Conference was held at Delhi in March 1947
  • Asian relations conference was held at New Delhi
  • Mountbatten appointed first governor – general of free India
  • Pak forces invaded Kashmir
  • (27th October) Kashmir acceded to India, Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sworn as Prime Minister of Kashmir
  • (November) G.V. Mavalankar elected speaker
  • Mehr Chand Mahajan was the prime minister of J&K in 1947
  • Asian Relations Conference was held in 1947 at New Delhi to assert Asian independence

  • K.P.S was elected chairman of the United Nations commission at Korea in 1947

  • 1948
  • (20th January) Bomb explosion in the assembly of Gandhiji in Birla House in Delhi
  • (30th January) Mahatma Gandhi was shot—dead by Nathu Ram Godse
  • (March) New law of congress party—the member of this party can not be he member of other party. Because of this issue socialists left the party against this decision of Acharya Narendra dev
  • (21st June) C. Rajgopalachari became first Indian governor general of independent India in place of Lord Mountbatten
  • (July) Kashmir dispute was presented in United Nations by India
  • (11th September) Death of General Muhammad Ali Zinna, first governor general of Pakistan
  • (17th September) Hyderabad province merged in Indian federation
  • (13th December) There was a cease fire agreement between India & Pakistan
  • RSS was banned.
  • A University Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of S. Radhakrishnan in 1948 it submitted its report in 1949 it recommended establishment of rural universities on the model of Visva Bharti and Jamia Milia – it recommended for instruction in mother tongue
  • Atomic Energy Commission was set up in 1948 with Homi J. Bhabha as chairman
  • Second Asian relations conference was held in December 1948 to protest against Dutch recolonization of Indonesia

  • 1949
  • Second Asian conference was held at Delhi in Jan 1949 to discuss the issue to Dutch occupation of Indonesia. 19 nations participated in it
  • (1st January) Cease – fire in Kashmir
  • (15th January) General K.M. Kariappa became first Indian Commander—in—Chief
  • (20th January) 2nd Asian relations conference in New Delhi
  • (26th November) Adoption of Indian constitution
  • 1950
  • (26th January) India became Sovereign republic. Constitution came into force
  • (26th January) Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first president of the Indian republic. Takes oath as President
  • Constitution of planning commission
  • (December) Sardar Patel died
  • Diplomatic relation established with China
  • India elected the temporary member of UN Security Council.
  • The accession of small states in Indian federation was completed
  • In April, 1950 Nehru – Liaqat Pact was signed to settle the issue of protection of minorities
  • In May 1950 Conference of Asian nations was held at Bongui, Philippines to enhance cooperation among Asian countries
  • 1951
  • (4th-11th March) Delhi was the venue of Asian games
  • (1st April) First five year plan launched
  • First general election in independent India concluded and congress came into power
  • (2nd February) ‘India agreement’ was signed with France to hand over Chandra Nagar
  • (18th June) First amendment in the constitution
  • First Gandhian Thakkar Bappa died
  • First census of independent India
  • (11th October) Foundation of “Jansangh Party” under the Presidentship – Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
  • (June) Kriplani left congress and founded ‘Kisan Majdoor Praja party’
  • Kriplani emphasized on the foundation of ‘Sarvodhaya society’
  • 1952
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad elected as the president of India
  • Second amendment in the constitution
  • First general election in India
  • (12th May) First meeting of the first Lok Sabha
  • (September) “Congress Samajwadi party” merged with “Kisan Majdoor Praja party” and emergence of new party “Praja socialist party” president Kriplani General Secretary Ashok Mehta. This was largest opposition party
  • (16th December) Death of Potti Sri Ramulu when he was observing fast for the demand of separate Telugu state
  • (2nd October) Community development programme launched
  • Community Development Programme was introduced in 1952 for rural upliftment –it was based on the concept of self-reliance and popular participation.
  • First IIT was set up at Kharagpur in 1952
  • 1953
  • (8th August) Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah was dismissed from the Prime Ministership and arrested. Bakshi Gulam Muhammad became prime minister of Jammu-Kashmir
  • Separate Andhra Pradesh state was founded on linguistic basis
  • Decline of Hindu Mahasabha and the development of Jansangh
  • Decline of ‘Ram Rajya council’
  • The political activities of Muslim league took place in Kerala & Tamilnadu region
  • (October) New State Andhra Pradesh formed. First Chief Minister T. Prakasam
  • Asian Leaders Conference was convened in Colombo in 1954

  • 1954
  • (January) foundation of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
  • The Panchshila agreement was signed between India and China (By P.M. Nehru and Chau en Lai) on 29 Apr 1954 at Delhi
  • (28th June) Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and China during the visit of Chinese prime minister Chou en lie
  • Jai Prakash Naryan isolated himself from active politics
  • First Indian Navy Air Station INS Garuda at Venduruthy in Cochin
  • In Dec 1954 Conference of Asian nations was held at Bogor to discuss Sino-Tibet issue
  • 1955
  • (January) NDA at khadakwasla opened by C.M of Maharashtra Moraji desai
  • In April 1955 a Conference of Afro-Asian nations was held at Bandung, Indonesia. This conference was organized by India, Myanmar and Indonesia together. At this conference the principles of Panchsheel were emphasized upon and it was felt that Afro Asian nations should enhance mutual cooperation for their socio-economic development. The NAM movement emerged out of this conference.
  • (21st June) In the Awadi Session (Madras) of Indian national congress, the aim of socialist society was accepted
  • (June) Visit of J.L Nehru to USSR
  • Resignation of Ram Manohar Lohia from “Praja Socialist Party” and the foundation of “Socialist Party”
  • 1956
  • (19th January) Nationalization of Life Insurance
  • (August) Operation of 1st Atomic reactor at Trombay
  • (1st November) Indian states reorganized on linguistic basis. Organisation of 14 states and 6 union territory
  • Second five year plan inaugurated
  • CPI at its Palghat session accepted that India had won independence in 1947
  • France signed bilateral agreement to hand over Pondicheri, Car Nicobar & Mahi to India
  • Death of Narendra Deo, Death of BR Ambedhkar
  • 1957
  • Second general election completed. Congress party was in majority in all the states except Kerala
  • Nehru took the oath of the prime ministership
  • (1st April) Coins of decimal system came into fashion
  • (5th April) Communist ministry was formed under the leadership of EMS Namburdaripad in Kerala
  • Second time Dr. Rajendra Prasad elected as president
  • Balwantral Mehta Committee was set up in 1957 to review the working of CDM – it recommended for democratic decentralization
  • 1958
  • (22nd February) Death of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  • (1st October) Metric system of weights and measures started
  • In July 1958 China published some maps claiming 132090sq. km. area of India
  • Scientific policy resolution was passed in 1958
  • 1959
  • (September) T.V Introduced in India, Pilot T.V center in Delhi
  • (17th December) Death of Pattabhi Sitaramaiya
  • Communist government in Kerala dismissed
  • Dalai Lama escaped to India
  • Swatantra party formed by Rajgopalachari, Minoo Masani, N.G. Ranga, K.M. Munshi. This had Rightist approach and opposed the approach of the congress
  • In 1959 the Tibetans revolted against Chinese rule. This led Chinese invasion of Tibet and flight of Dalai Lama
  • On its recommendation Panchayati Raj was introduced in 1959 at Nagpur (Rajasthan)
  • 1960
  • (1st May) Formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states after the division of Bombay states
  • In September 1961 first NAM summit was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia. It was decided here NAM summit will be held once in three years
  • Kriplani left the “Praja Socialist Party”
  • Chou—Nehru meeting
  • Indo-Pak Indus water treaty signed between Nehru & Ayub khan at Rawalpindi. Mediation by Ugin Black & Elfi
  • 1961
  • (January) Queen Elizabeth of Britain visited India
  • Third five—year plan launched
  • (February) Peacock made the National bird
  • Goa, Daman and Diu liberated From Portuguese (Operation vijay)
  • China occupied some part of Indian Territory
  • Census made in whole of the country including Jammu—Kashmir
  • (7th March) Death of Pt. Govind Ballav pant
  • 1962
  • Third general election in India. Congress came into power in all the states and union territories
  • Nagaland created
  • (13th may) Dr. Radha Krishan elected as the president (Zakir Hussain elected Vice President)
  • On 8th September 1962 Chinese forces invaded India
  • (20th October) China invaded India
  • On 20th October 1962 about 30000 Chinese soldiers attacked Laddakh and Assam
  • Emergency declared
  • (8th November) Death of D.K Karve
  • On 21st November 1962 China unilaterally declared cease fire
  • (21th November) Unilateral cease—fire by China
  • Goa became union territory
  • Inauguration of first oil refinery in Nummati (Assam)
  • Death of Purushottam Das Tondon
  • Colombo Conference was held during 10th -12th December 1962 to resolve Indo-China conflict. Though India agreed to abide by the Colombo declaration, China refused to accept them
  • 1963
  • (21st February) Death of former president Dr. Rajendra Prasad
  • (August) No confidence against Nehru Government
  • (23rd October) The construction of Bakhara-Nangal dam was completed
  • (1st December) Nagaland was given the status of a state
  • (12th December) Death of Maithilisharan Gupta
  • Parliament accepted the use of English as a national language after 1965
  • 1964
  • C. Nanda was the home minister who acted as the PM after the death of Nehru in 1964
  • Nehru died on May 27,1964
  • (27th May) Death of Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Guljari Lal Nanda became working prime minister
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri became the prime minister
  • (8th September) Split in CPI and formation of Indian communist party (Marxist)
  • The Second NAM summit was held at Cairo, Egypt on 5th Oct 1964

INDIA 1947-64

India and China

  • The Principles of Panchsheel

The five principles of Panchsheel are:

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereigny;
  • Non-Aggression
  • Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs;
  • Equality and mutual benefit;
  • Peaceful co-existence.

India and NAM

  • Some standards/conditions were prescribed for any nation to become member of NAM. These included
  • The nation should believe in Non Alignment and the policy of peaceful coexistence
  • The nation should support anti colonial struggle of nations
  • The nation should not be a part of any power block
  • The nation should not allow any military station of any power block on its land
  • The Third NAM summit was held at Lusaka, Zambia in Sep 1970

Miscellaneous Facts 1947-1964

  • V.P. Menon was made the secretary of the state department
  • V.P. Menon drafted Instrument of accession for states
  • C. Rajagopalachari became the first Indian governor of West Bengal after independence
  • Hyderabad was the largest state
  • Zamindari Abolition committee under G.B. Pant
  • Abdul Kalam Azad became education minister, C.D. Deshmukh became finance minister
  • Verrier Elwin was the greatest influence behind Govt’s Tribal Policy.
  • Nehru’s tribal policy was to integrate the tribal into Indian mainstream at the same time maintaining their conspicuous identity
  • Shah Nawaj Bhutto was the Dewan of Junagarh

  • Ittihad-Ul-Muslimin was a communal Muslim organization in Hyderabad whose para-military wing was Razakars

  • Govt. of India had accepted privy pursed free of taxes of the rulers, their titles and certain privileges against their singing instrument of succession

  • Afro-Asian Conference was called by India and other powers at Bandung, Indonesia

  • This conference was a processor to Belgrade non-aligned conference

  • In Indo – Pak relations one important issue was the issue of the property of persons displaced. The value of Hindus property (those who left Pakistan) was Rs. three thousand crore whereas the value of the property left by Muslims in India was Rs. three hundred crore

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