Kudumbashree: A poverty alleviation program in Kerala

In 1987, Government of India and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) the sponsored the Urban Basic Services (UBS) program for those living in slums. Then this UBS program was expanded to the urban poor who were living in low-income neighborhoods and was named Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP). The fundamental principle of UBSP was community participation and then identifies needs, planning, prioritizing, implementing, monitoring, and feedback of these poor people. A three-tiered community structure was instituted, so as to empower the poor especially the women. Then later on, in the early 1990’s Kerala took up this UBSP so as to empower women. This lead to two models on pilot basics.

  1. Alleppey Urban Model: Alappuzha Community Based Nutrition Program (CBNP)

  2. Malappuram Rural Model

Alleppey Urban Model: Alappuzha Community Based Nutrition Program (CBNP)

UNICEF and the Alleppey Municipal UBSP initiated a community-based nutrition program (CBNP) in Alleppey in 19911. It was done on pilot basics only related to nutrition of poor people are to be addressed by this model. It was targeted to increase the nutritional level of children of age 0- 5 years old where the nutritional level is measured by weight-for-age and also improve the nutritional status of women ages 15- 45 years old where the nutritional level is measured by weight and height. Firstly, the agenda of this program was set and then they did a survey to identify the key causes of malnutrition among children and women. This was done in about 5,728 households living in 7 of 36 wards of Alleppey town and then they decided to shortlist nine risk factors and all those families with four or more of the following risk factors were classified as below the poverty line (BPL). These factors are:

  • kutcha (mud) house

  • no access to safe drinking water

  • family getting only two meals a day or less,

  • presence of children below age 5

  • alcoholic or drug addict

  • scheduled caste or scheduled tribe family

  • no access to sanitary latrine

  • illiterate adult

  • Not more than one earning family member.

Even though it identifies these 9 criteria to identify the BPL families, but there are some issues in these criteria. The meaningful poverty assessment should be based on sound conceptual foundations. We should have comprehensive framework for measuring poverty. We should clearly identify poor from non poor, find the depth of poverty, we should be able to make meaningful aggregation about the magnitude of poverty in any particular region. Any four criteria out of nine in the KDS index means that all criteria are treated as independent and equally important. They however are not independent and equally important (OOMMEN). So there should be some way of giving weights to these criteria. There were few other issues also.

UNICEF’s had a Triple A approach, and this was used to address the above issues and thus a package of interventions were identified such as income-generation schemes for unemployed women, shelter upgrading, enrollment of illiterate adults in the Total Literacy Programs and children in education programs of government of India, integrated child development services (ICDS) etc. As the implementation of this went, different stakeholders identified some deficiency in the existing government structures and thus community-level administrative/delivery system was suggested for better implementation. Thus the system of the Community Development Society (CDS) emerged with a unique set of bylaws.

CDS Structure

Firstly, poor families were identified and then they were organized into neighborhood groups (NHGs) by a community organizer who is an employee of the municipality. Each NHG consisted of 20-45 BPL families. Each NHG member elected a five-member committee called the neighborhood groups committee (NHGC). Then these NHGs were federated at ward level as area development societies (ADS). The ADSs were then federated at the municipal level as CDSs.

CDS Key Strategic Activities

  • Participatory planning and implementation

  • Thrift, credit

  • Micro enterprise

  • Convergence

  • Maternal and Child health

  • Poverty reduction

These are explained in detailed in Kudumbashree section

Malappuram Rural Model

Malappuram district is one of the 90 most underdeveloped districts in India. It has the highest fertility rate, the highest infant mortality rate, lowest per capita income of Rs 1,257, literacy rate is 88.6 %, and unemployment rate is high. By 1994, with UNICEF, the CDS approach was extended to the entire district. Malappuram CDS is the largest women’s NGO in Asia. Swarnajayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) program was to be implemented by The Rural Development Department of Kerala and issued guidelines to utilize the CDS system to implement the in the rural areas. In 1995, the CDS approach expanded to all rural areas of Malappuram.

CDS Key Strategic Activities

  • Participatory planning and implementation

  • Thrift, credit, Micro enterprise

  • Convergence

  • Maternal and Child health

  • Poverty reduction

Kudumbashree

The success of the CDS model in urban Alappuzha and in rural Malappuram led the government of Kerala to scale up the strategy to the whole of the state in 1998 under the name Kudumbashree, Kudumbashree means prosperity of the family, is the name of the women oriented and community based4. After 73rd & 74th constitutional amendments which strengthened panchayat and ULBs, Kudumbashree was launched in April 1998 for   poverty eradication and women empowerment within 10 years. Therefore it created the Poverty Eradication Mission under the Department of Local Self-Government. About 19 line departments were associated with Kudumbashree. In 2004, there are about 114,844 NHGs covering urban, rural, and tribal areas of Kerala, with 1,049 CDSs at the LGB level.

Formerly primarily an urban initiative, Kudumbashree CBOs have expanded to all rural areas. The principal goal of Kudumbashree is poverty alleviation through empowerment of women similar to those of previous two models.

Kudumbashree Mission focuses on:

  • Training for Change

  • Education

  • Share and Care

  • Community Health Care

  • Environmental Sanitation

  • The Poor Women’s Bank, and

  • Community Financial Management

The following key approaches of CBNP continue in the scaled-up Kudumbashree:

  • using a transparent nine-point index to identify the poor,

  • development of women’s micro-enterprises, and thrift and credit societies

  • Participatory planning and implementation of antipoverty and social welfare programs

  • Convergence of various government programmes and resources at the community-based organisation level

  • efforts to involve the CDS structure in local level anti-poverty planning;

Indeed, it has been widely hailed and rewarded for its innovativeness and unprecedented reach. While micro-credit is one among the many strategies initiated in the Kudumbashree strategy, it has been gaining in importance and visibility within the programme.

Increasing leadership and cooperation of LGBs and an emphasis on women’s active participation in grama sabhas meetings in rural areas and block meetings in urban areas are some important activities of Kudumbashree. The vision of nurturing an innovative environment within CDS/ADS/NHG levels has continued from previously stated pilot projects to Kudumbashree.

The following are the community structures suggested for the rural side:

  • Kudumbashree Ayalkoottam (NHG)

  • Kudumbashree Ward Samithy (ADS)

  • Kudumbashree Panchayat Samithy (CDS)

Organization structure

NHG – neighborhood group

NHG committee of 5 elected members

20-45 BPL families

ADS -Area Development Society general body

Elected ADS governing body

Ward-level advisory committee presided over by municipal ward councilors

CDS (community development societies) general body

Elected CDS governing body

CDS advisory committee presided over by municipal chairman with municipal commissioner as a co-convener

Government, district

Administration

Supporting organizations such as NABARD Donors such as UNICEF

Scaling Up Process

In 1995, the Alleppey and Malappuram Model, which are previously described are scaled up to all urban areas under the leadership of Urban Poverty Alleviation cell( UPA). In 1997, people’s campaign for decentralization for planning was demanded. In 1997, there was fiscal decentralization with 30% to 40% of state funds disbursed to local governments.

Dimensions of scaling up

Kudumbashree adopted a replication stratergy to scale to entire state using the three tier CDS as adopted by Alleppey and Malappuram Model and thus it was replicated in 14 districts initially.

Qualitative scaling up

  1. Replication:- A successful program of Alleppey and Malappuram Model were replicated in all district in kerala.

  2. Nurture:- A well-staffed and well-funded agency of Kudumbashree is CDS system

  3. Integration:- into the existing government structures and systems after it was illustrated that Alleppey and Malappuram Models had potential. It was CBO that was integrated into LGB, but CBS structures are not integrated into LBG as they are not envisioned as government structures.

Functional scaling up

  1. There was no horizontal scaling i.e. unrelated new activities or programs were not added , but rather there was a vertical scale up i.e. activities related to same chain of activities as original are added to existing ones such as emphasis in chronic diseases, destitution identification etc.

  2. Political Scaling up:- NHS/ADS/CDS are recognized by Government of Kerala and they can influence policy reform to better the existing system. They can also have capacity to organize social movements such as women fighting against domestic violence. Since this is politicized it is easy for the members in NHG to bring up there issues at panchayat, district or state level can they can reach out to parties in power at these various levels. There are empirical evidences to show that many women are participating in elections and few have won at panchayat level.

Organisation scale up

  1. Financial viability: CDS are funded by various means such as government,, self financing by NHG members, through sub contracting etc thereby increasing financial viability.

  2. Institutional diversification: basically government is the main partner, but there are other who are also supporting. They are banks, universities, different organizations, other departments in government, different individual actors etc

Decentralization

People’s Plan campaign was launched by left Democratic Front in 1996 and thus in 1997 state government devoted 35%- 40% i.e. about 1 billion rupees of states annual outlay funds to LGB. Many functions related to basic needs such as employment, income generating activities in agriculture and so on were also devolved. The main objective was to avoid the already existing cumbersome bureaucratic system, but rather to create a new participatory model of local self governance. Therefore policy makers felt the need to integrate LGB activities with Kudumbashree CDS system and thus NHG was looked upon as potential mechanism for ensuring sustained participation. Since grama sabha were too large and had many limitations, the decision to link CDS structures to LGB accelerated the pace of scaling up process.

Key achievements of Kudumbashree

1. Thrift and Credit Societies (TCS) – at the NHG Kudumbashree promotes Thrift and Credit Societies to facilitate the poor to save and improve their access to credit. A member can borrow up to four times her savings. It was done in almost all of the NHG’s. Since women got credit more women participated in NHG’s. But still there are some problems with effective linkages with the banks since credit is only equal to or slightly higher than the thrift amounts. CDSs are experiencing problems in linking with commercial banks. But in many places there are rapid strides that are being made in linking more NHGs to the commercial banks through NABARD.

The amount of each loan and the priority of disbursement are decided by the NHG members. The interest income from thrift is generally used for relending. In Kudumbashree, the interest rate is high (about 2% per month). This discourages credit for consumption and ensures that the loans are for productive income-generation activities. In Alleppey, 88 percent of the TCS loans extended were for income-generating activities (Oommen 1999).

2. Microenterprise

One of the highlighting features of Kudumbashree is that, Kudumbashree staff working with many other government departments such as NABARD actively identifies financially viable opportunities for the poor and promotes them aggressively. In 2004, there were about 14,125 viable microenterprises in urban areas and 47,000 microenterprises in rural areas.

Since the women were given credit and training lead to empowerment of women and as a result there were some innovative microenterprise activities such as catering services, courier services, coconut delicacies, ethnic delicacies, lease-land farming, and computer data entry services which were historically never done by women in Kerala. Kerashree is a well-known coconut oil brand in Kerala, produced by Kudumbashree CBOs.

3. Convergence

K

CDS under LGB

Sanitation,

Water supply

Integrated Child Development Program

Healthcare

Antipoverty programs

Housing

Literacy programs

udumbashree has been effective in collaboration and co-ordination with other departments and agencies which are working for poverty alleviation and many other schemes. Some of them were Spices Board, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission, the Khadi and Village Industries Board, Schedule Tribe department, the Social Welfare Department, and the Industries Department.

4. Participatory planning and implementation

Kudumbashree involves grassroots, bottom-up planning, and implementation of various programs. This component is strengthened by efforts to increase the leadership of LGBs without compromising the autonomy and decision making power of the CDS.

5. Lease Land Farming

When paddy cultivation became a non-lucrative affair, farmers of the state deserted paddy fields. Kudumbashree found this as an opportunity. Neighbourhood Groups of the mission were given encouragement to start paddy cultivation. Many groups have identified the immense potential of lease land farming. Lease land farming is beneficial both to the landless poor women of Kudumbashree Neighborhood

6 . Human Resource Development

To achieve human development, Kudumbashree provides a variety of training for capacity building of CBOs functionaries. This includes general training for CBO functionaries, training for newly elected CBO members, skill development and entrepreneurial training for enterprise development etc

7. Balasabha

Balasabhas are grass roots level groups of the children of BPL families. This program organises the children of the poor families of the State into Balasabhas as a part of its holistic approach to wipe out poverty. It main objectives are to provide a healthy growth and development of children and to provide an atmosphere for informal learning.

8. Arogya Swayam Sahaya Sangham

Kudumbashree is encouraging the NHG’s to manage minor ailments as well as chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and to promote health by changing risky behaviors. Kudumbashree is training NHG health volunteers.

Other programs are

  • Micro Housing/ Bhavanashree

  • Destitute Identification , Rehabilitation and Monitoring Programme/Ashraya

  • The S3 programme

  • Solid Waste Management /Clean Keral Business

  • Special Employment Programme for the Educated Youth

  • Special School for the Disabled Children/Buds

  • Self Employment Programme under SJSRY

  • GRQ Project.

Kudumbashree’s Impact

An antipoverty survey that was conducted in 1998 by the state government could perhaps serve as a baseline for evaluation of Kudumbashree. Impact evaluation can be done at three levels, consistent with the overall objectives of Kudumbashree.

  1. poverty alleviation in terms of income, assets, and human development

  2. participation (and its quality)

  3. empowerment of women

  • NHG have given women a social security safety net and this they have greater bonding among the women. In times of crisis, these women don’t feel left out and thus this has resulted in reduction of feeling of vulnerability, e.g., women contribute to the treatment of sick members of NHG households.

  • In many active NHGs, women are willing to put forth their demands and they are now confident and capable of articulating their demands. Therefore women choices, concerns are heard at NHG level and then they are taken forward in ADG and municipal level plans.

  • There has been an increase in the awareness of various programs of the government and thus more women are participating in these programs and thus have resulted in improved access to these programs

  • Considerable savings are being generated due to TCS, which provide credit both for both consumption and productive purposes.

  • Due to linkages with banks such as NABARD, these people are now able to get credit and thus they are able to start micro enterprises and thus they are able to generate revenue and by savings they are able to improve their economic strengths. NHG members are undertaking both group and individual microenterprises.

  • In many instances the women have led social movements say against domestic violence, illicit liquor and due to politicisation of these groups they are been heard al district and also at state level.

Impact of Micro-enterprises

There are four pathways through which women experience change through micro-enterprises, as follows:

  • Material change in access to and control over material resources, in level of income, and in satisfaction of basic needs

  • Changes in level of knowledge, skills, and awareness of wider environment

  • Perceptual change in individual’s perception of own individuality, interests, and value and in the perceptions by others of individual’s contributions and worth

  • Relational changes in contractual agreements, in bargaining power, and in ability to resist exploitation.

Lessons offered / Critical factors in scaling up/ replicability in other parts of India

  • Positive experiences of the pilots– The Alleppey and Malappuram experiences are the most important factor in the conception and scaling-up of Kudumbashree. The replication of CDS followed the models implemented in Alleppey and Malappuram.

  • Replicability in both urban and rural settings – Though it was initially targeted to be urban project but later it was replicated in underdeveloped districts such as Malappuram which was a rural setting. Therefore this model can be applied in both rural and urban settings.

Government ownership

Kudumbashree actively involved both state and local governing bodies in its formulation of policies related to Kudumbashree. Government recognized the potential of the two pilot models and then it was scaled up to entire Kerala. The district collectors in Alleppey and Malappuram were involved in the policy formulation and drafting for Kudumbashree. Kudumbashree is an interdepartmental initiative, which makes it conducive for a multi sectoral response to poverty alleviation. Therefore the state government role was very essential for interdepartmental level co-ordination. Other institutional arrangements such as partnerships with the central government and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), continue to play a role in an expanded response to poverty alleviation through CDS.

Some unique features of Kerala – Kerala stands apart from other states of India in the following ways.

    • Politicians in Kerala generally do not fear empowered groups.

    • Though Kerala is highly politicized, to get progressive ideas on top of the agenda of political leaders is relatively easy, due to the history of social and labor movements.

    • Kerala generally has an absence of extreme inequalities.

    • The caste system is practically nonexistent, removing one barrier to collective action.

    • Higher literacy rates make communication and training easier.

    • The status of women is better than in other states. Resistance to formation of women’s groups was small, even in Malappuram, a predominantly Islamic district.

    • The unique sociopolitical context of Kerala, coupled with leadership of a few motivated and innovative officials, was key in both the decentralization and scaling-up processes.

Constraining Factors

Two factors initially constrained the scaling-up process.

  • Whether to include all women in the or only women who are below poverty line?

  • More focus was given on micro enterprises and other economic well being of women and maternal and child health and nutrition issues

The government initially wanted to include all women. But there were some issues of including all women because then government would need more resources to handle this entire Kudumbashree project. Negotiations between various stakeholders delayed scaling up by over a year. Many LGBs resisted strengthening of the CBOs, which were perceived as a threat to authority. This still continues to be a problem in some locations.

There are also some debates and discussions on shrinking focus on maternal and child health and nutrition issues and an increasing preoccupation with microenterprise initiatives. Mandatory group formation coupled with rapid expansion compromised the quality of training, posing a threat to sustainability of collective action. The current community development and action plans lack a wider, long-term development perspective. As CDS structures are affiliated to LGBs, they may be as weak or as strong as the LGB itself and the CDS structures are vulnerable to political interference. The NHG volunteers perceive themselves as working for the government, expecting remuneration. Due to institutionalization of CDS, it has started acting like a bureaucracy and it is evident in some places, but not all. Proper training at LGB, CDS, ADS and NHG level should be given so that they are aware of the de-facto power i.e. the positional power so that they act according to the structure defined in the Kudumbshree program. LGB members feel threatened and feel that CDS structures have occupied their space and authority. Therefore high quality and periodic training is necessary. Training and mobilizing women, capacity building and sustained collective action is very necessary. Gopalan, Bhupathy, and Raja (1995) and Oommen(2004) observed that when CBNP was expanded from seven to all 36 wards of Alleppey municipality, the quality of training was compromised and this may repeat in KBS.

Other Key constraints

  1. There are no explicit exit strategies. There is an implicit assumption that once Kudumbashree facilitates the capacity building of CDS structures, the CDSs will be ready to take over. It should analyze the feasibility of such a handover and started making explicit plans for such transformation.

  2. Since KBS, have a 10 year mission, dismantling it in 2008 would have caused problems for getting additional funds for CBO’s. But in 2008-09, the SJSRY Action Plans were integrated with the development plans of the ULB. SJSRY is an ongoing centrally sponsored anti-poverty programme. It is shared 75:25 basis by both Central and State Government of Kerala. The Special Livelihood Projects of Kudumbashree have been implemented under the aegis of SJSRY. Under the SJSRY, so far we have developed 27661 micro enterprises of which 1818 units are group enterprises (each group with minimum 10 women) and 25843 are individual enterprises. (kudumbashree.org: Website).

  3. Conflict with NGO’s – There are many NGO’s who have organized people into SHG and they were mostly formed before KBS and similarly many other political parties, Rural Development department formed SHG as the concept of SHG is very old in Kerala. Now all the SHGs have to be integrated with KBS to avoid duplication and ensure universal coverage of all BPL women. Therefore now if there was an understanding that no new groups would be formed and existing groups would be integrated in KBS, then scaling up process would be smooth else it would be difficult. But NGOs feel that KBS poses an unfair competition and feel that government is taking control and have restricted their growth. However, federating NGO to LGB is allowed, but still there are some tensions (Suneetha Kadiyala: 2004).

  4. Formation of groups (NHG) was compulsory and in some cases KBS and state planning board wanted to scale up at great pace. In 1998, in Thiruvananthapuram district, where community mobilization for collective action was especially challenging, some officials offered incentive of Rs 5,000 per NHG formed. In a few days, many groups were formed. But after the money was disbursed among the members, they abandoned the NHGs.

  5. LGB consider CDS system as sub-ordinate system and some issues are there in smooth co-ordination.

  6. Gram Sabha’s have their meeting in morning hours and usually women are busy in household activities and its cause problems to women.

  7. Men may resist women’s participation

  8. Women may lack long term vision due to illiteracy, inadequate awareness etc and this may lead to ineffective leadership at NHG and thus training is very essential. Therefore women should be trained to identify problems of all women in NHG and thus they have to be trained to identify problems of all women in NHG and thus it should be reflected in genuine planning at ADS and then at CDS level so that their concerns and immediate critical problems of poverty are addressed and thus they are reflected in poverty alleviation program.

  9. Child health and nutrition- The other activities such as pulse and polio programs, but it is a one day activity and doesn’t require much planning, decision making and use of NHG resources. KBS strategy document mentions much on thrift and credit operations and it is reflected in annual reports. Therefore the essence of previous two models described and CBNP programs have taken a back seat. The focus on these activities is perhaps due to the high unemployment rate among educated women, particular to Kerala. Also, these activities yield visible return in a relatively short period, so it is easy to organize women around this issue and to please those looking for impact. However, microenterprise/credit by itself will not necessarily lead to poverty alleviation, improvement in human development indicators, and the empowerment of women. That would require a consciously multipronged approach.

  10. A declining spirit of volunteerism is already evident. As the program expanded to the entire state, the Kudumbashree CBOs see this a government program and, therefore, feel entitled to remuneration. Many volunteers in Alleppey and Kollam complained about the work and lack of monetary compensation. Interestingly, they were not willing to give up their position after a two-year term.

  11. Political parties and their leaders are aware of the vast potential of the NHGs to mobilize people and they try to take political mileage from NHG

Overcoming Institutional Barriers

  1. Poverty Eradication Mission gave more freedom to Kudumbashree (KBS) board in staff recruitment. KBS thus recruited professionals who were highly motivated and those willing to work in a team in multi sectors.

  2. The leadership of KBS was highly motivated such as T.K. Jose, I.A.S., Executive Director-Kudumbashree and many others. T.K Jose was instrumental in team building, empowering and motivating the staff.

  3. Officers encourage staff to be innovative, flexible, learn from practical experiences of people. And then to adopt policies accordingly to their needs. The performance based reviews and monitoring in many places were done. There was adequate staff interaction, sharing of information, good practices from various places so that it can be adopted in other places. Therefore both formal and informal training were critical in strengthening KBS.

  4. Kerala has a coalition government for last 3 decades and some portfolios are distributed along party lines and also these results in departmentalism in bureaucracy who wants the bureaucrats of their preferred choice. But KBS unique features of vertical scaling up and initially 19 departments were linked and officers were integrated to co-ordinate with different departments and thus enabled multi sectoral work. KBS discourages bureaucratic attitudes.

  5. KBS, CBO’s are embedded in a permanent institutional framework-LGB’s, which have substantial funds due to tax collection at state level and also allocation of money from the center in some programs. 10% of local plan outlay of local plans is set apart for projects that benefit women. Thrift and credit operations and microenterprises activities make NHG’s self-reliant as evident in many places ( Oommen)

Graduation of BPL to APL

The traditional 9-point criteria have been modified and no longer serve as a bench mark for any measure of poverty. The wide and somewhat open ended modification of the 9-point criteria in recent years to include women-headed households, presence of widow, divorcee, abandoned and challenged person, chronically ill member in the family and so on are also imprecise ascriptions which open wide the gate to non-poor categories. No NHG admitted to having an APL woman among its members, perhaps because moving to APL means losing their benefits as NHG members.

  1. Suneetha Kadiyala’, “SCALING UP KUDUMBASHREE.COLLECTIVE ACTION FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT” last accessed on 28-.9-1010 at www.iiav.nl/epublications//2004/Scaling_up_Kudumbashree.pdf.

  2. M. A. OOMMEN’ “MICRO FINANCE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: THE CASE OF KERALA’S KUDUMBASHREE”, ” last accessed on 28-.9-1010 at www.csesindia.org/admin/modules/cms/docs/publication/17.pdf

  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kudumbashree_Mission_(Kerala)

  4. Mission statement : http://www.kudumbashree.org/?q=memorandum.

  5. Suneetha Kadiyala’ “ Scaling Up Kudumbashree.Collective Action for Poverty Alleviation and Women.s Empowerment”,

  6. last accessed on 28-.9-1010 at http://www.ifpri.org/publication/scaling-kudumbashree-collective-action-poverty-alleviation-and-womens-empowerment-0.

  7. Dr V P RAGHAVAN’ SOCIAL ACTION, GENDER EQUITY AND EMPOWERMENT: THE CASE OF KUDUMBASHREE PROJECTS IN KERALA last accessed on 28-.9-1010 at http://www.igidr.ac.in/~money/mfc_10/V%20P%20Raghavan_submission_48.pdf

  8. http://www.kudumbashree.org/?q=sj

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