Poverty in general represents the inability of the person to meet their basic needs for physical survival and well being. Poverty is a condition of life so characterised by mal nutrition, illiteracy, disease, high infant mortality and low life expectancy which are below any reasonable definition of human decency.1
Poverty is both relative and absolute. Relative poverty refers to a state where some people have more goods and services than others. A poor person has income below a certain level called poverty level. Thus it does not necessarily mean that those who are below such an income level suffer from deprivation of basic needs. On other hand, absolute suffer from insufficiency of basic needs of life2. Poverty is multidimensional, and has various characteristics and thus it presents a number of challenges to measure it.
A poor kid was a school drop put after the primary school since her family did not have money. There are no jobs in the village and people often migrate to city in search of jobs. They usually come to city where their relatives live. Initially they have temporary houses made up of wood, twigs etc which have no water, no toilets and other services. Children grow up in such a pathetic condition. Initially they built nothing permanent since government could pull it down. As years pass by and as and when they get money they build such that each wall is turned separately into concrete walls from mud. While doing these they don’t have to pay interests therefore no overhead and accounting. It is a story of despair, desperation .Nothing is easy going for the urban poor as it seems to be from outside. Business for street vendors is tough and income is not constant. They live in dangerous, hazardous places such as hills, water pipelines, nallas, etc, dumping grounds etc. Squatter community was busier than legal community which was right next to it. It had more life. Buildings looked haphazard from outside with loose concrete, bricks. Squatter community was a beehive of human habitations, concrete prison cells. One room is all rooms, living, dining, bedroom etc, People started investing in homes after they were sure that demolition would not occur and they built their homes with materials that were available locally in slums and nearby places. This is how squatter community develops and thus city grows organically. People in squatters believe that problems of squatters can be solved by squatters themselves and not by any third party.
The squatter communities used to steal electricity, water from government, but instead if the government recognised them as potential customers who are in millions and thus government could make profits and also improve the squatter livelihood in the process. Similarly television, cable, internet business and other such business can boom in these places and thus can create employment in slums itself. Banks could have encouraged them to do some savings, provide loans and credit cards etc. The poor people prefer to have all amenities near or inside the slums instead of going to city and they can also afford it as they earn and also they don’t pay taxes.
Composition and characteristics of urban poor
Four basic questions are
Who are poor?
How did they become poor?
What do they do?
How they live?
To answers these questions let us look at the different characteristics of poor.
The different dimensions of poverty are
Access to basic services
Socio-economic i.e. demographic (housing )
Physical and ecological conditions of living in a particular area and Spatial
Urban labour market is divided in formal and informal sectors and poor people are mostly employed in informal section since they don’t have the skills and educational qualifications for employment in formal sector. Informal sectors permits easy entry, needs low skills, sometimes self employment is possible. Unemployment is very high among poor people. Even if they are employed they are paid very less and they can’t depend on their family members for income. Children are often made to work so that livelihood of the household is met. Some children are even made to work in houses such as taking care of home ( security), looking after younger children while the parents are outside for work. Thus children who are not sent to school are used in direct or indirect way for the economic well being of household.
Most of the poor people are in informal sector and a self employed since they don’t have skills and generally they don’t have to wait for long time to get employment as they don’t have any source of income. Thus they take up some menial job which is often low paid so that they can just survive.
Poor people are found to work more in tertiary sector (manufacturing services, construction, transport and commerce) than in primary and secondary sector3. They are employed in wide range of occupations. The hours of work, Number of days worked in a month also varies widely among the poor and it is not fixed. Longer they work more income they generate. Thus income levels greatly vary depending on occupation, work sector, number of hours, number of days of work, number of years worked in particular occupation. Underemployment, irregular job pattern and low wages are some of the critical economic problems of urban poor.
Deprivation of basic needs produce ill effects on the development and functioning of humans. If the individual suffers from deprivation of basic needs of food, shelter, clothing, housing, water, sanitation and security, that person becomes the target of psychological imbalances which may remain dormant and create deep-rooted feeling of powerlessness. This powerlessness leads to hopelessness, fatalism or apathy and in extreme cases results in psycho pathetic condition 4. They are bound to stress full situation and shocks and the ability to absorb shocks varies and thus they become emotionally unstable. Anxiety, aggression, depression are common among poor people.
Culture also shapes poverty. Family structure, interpersonal relations, time orientation, value system and spending patter as a part of culture of the poor people define poverty. As most of the slums in city are located in the fringes of elite people and they often subdue themselves that they cannot achieve the status of larger society. Thus this leads to creation of their own perception, a different kind of life style which helps them to cope up with their fellow slum mates and thus to a situation of hopelessness. This leads to low level of aspiration which further degrades their situation and thus leads to more poverty 5. Because of high unemployment, low wages for labourers also lead to low aspiration among the poor. This thus leads to sub culture of the poor5.
When this sub culture of poverty comes into existence, it perpetuates itself from generation to generation because of its effect on the children. This leads to change in the attitudes of nature of individual, then the family, nature of slum community and also nature of larger society.
Lack of effective participation and integration of poor in major institutions of larger society can cause alienation leading to the development of sub culture of poverty. It is thus much more difficult to eliminate this sub culture of poverty than poverty itself.
Physical and ecological conditions of living in a particular area
As the population is growing, the pressure on natural resources is increasing and also the environment. Uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources and population growth disturb the environment equilibrium and create conditions in which human basic needs can’t be satisfied and thus leading to poverty. The cultivable land per person decreases as the population grows. With vast number of people migrating and the need for better survival conditions demands, the pressure of population growth on the resources has lead to enormous levels of poverty.
Poor people have large household size that non- poor. However, there are large variations in their mean household size which depend upon the socio-cultural and economic factors in each region. Urban Poor are mostly migrants from rural areas. But recent studies have shown that migrants are often better off than non migrants6.
Perception is that poor have a large household size. But this is not true since mean household size of urban poor (5.2 – according to Census of India, 1981) does not differ significantly from that of rest of urban household (5.4) 6.
Household size and income
A research was conducted by National Institute of Urban Affairs. They take a sample of all poor households and BPL household among these poor households. They conclude that, in poorest household the larger households are not significantly poorer than the smaller households whereas in overall sample the larger households are poorer than the smaller households.
In poor households, the percentage of children (< 15 years) is higher and percentage of labour force (15 -60 years) is lower. Women, children and old people are dominant in poor households. Incidence of poverty is higher among the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes 6.
6. “Profile of Urban Poor: An Investigation into their Demographic, Economic and Shelter Characteristics”, 1989, National Institute of Urban Affairs.
Poverty and Literacy levels
Illiteracy among poor is much higher than rest of urban population. A very high dropout rates from school going children. Illiteracy is particularly higher among females of low income and poor people. Girls are not encouraged to study beyond primary level.
Housing and access to basic services characteristics
Housing characteristics can be divided into four types7
Squatters are very common among poor people. They usually are migrants and come to big city in search of job and since they don’t have money they occupy certain lands which are near their place of work so as to save on the transportation costs. They continue to occupy these lands despite the fear of eviction because of proximity to their work. There are also tenants among urban poor as they can’t to build their own houses. Some of the tenants are migrants and as they have come recently into urban areas they would not be able to construct their own house. Most of the poor households live in kutcha or semi kutcha or semi pucca houses and few in pucca. Sometimes the poor people pay bribes to officials and make their homes legal and thus claim their ownership of their house in slums. Many poor people prefer to build their own houses rather than pay rents.
Assets such as land, house, gold, stocks, bonds, vehicles, household items are the indicators of standard of living. They act as a backup in times of dire conditions. Assets sometimes give future returns and make life convenient. Assets are formed when excess of income over consumption is converted into these assets for some future gains.
Spatial Dimension of Urban poverty
The incidence of urban poverty varies from state to state and also among different size classes of cities. Even within a city, the percentage of people living below the poverty line and in slums varies depending upon whether the slums or squatter settlements are recent origin or very old of about 25 to 30 years or whether slums are on public lands or private lands or whether any improvement work has been carried out in slum areas by public agencies.
Measurement of Poverty: Frameworks for measuring poverty
Poverty is multidimensional, and has various characteristics and thus it presents a number of challenges to measure it. Right now poverty measuring is quantitative and expenditure on consumption per capita is used by Planning Commission to measure poverty in India.
There are various approaches to study of poverty
• Economic: This provides for useful explanation of poverty. The level of poverty and its magnitude can be clearly measured in economic terms. In this type of analysis, poor are those who do not have a defined level of income which is required for the fulfilling of basic requirements. The criterion to draw this poverty line is the expenditure on consumption. Therefore minimum nutrition intake for normal health is necessary.
The definition of poverty line in the Indian context was attempted for the first time in 1962 by a Working Group of eminent Economists and social thinkers after taking into account the recommendations of the Nutrition Advisory Committee of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1958) regarding balanced diet. It suggested a model of calorie intake of 2100 or 2400 calories per capita in urban and rural respectively.
The major criticism revolve around the adoption of uniform calorie norms and fixed consumption basket, base year price differentials and uniformity of deflators across the States and the practice of adjusting the NSS distribution. Also the limitations of the poverty line approach like its absolute and reductionist nature, insensitiveness to mobility, effects of geographic, cultural and occupational manners etc have established it as an invalid method. Income levels generally fluctuate and there are problems of under-reporting and people who are in informal sector usually don’t report correct numbers.
Income or consumption measures also do not capture multiple dimensions of poverty which are stated previously. Urban poor are dependent on cash economy thus making them more vulnerable to fluctuations in income and there are severe environmental issues and health hazards due to crowded living conditions in urban slums and no tenure security and access to basic services such as water, sewage, health and education, and a safety net to mitigate hard times and vulnerability to withstand shocks.
• Unsatisfied Basic Needs Index 8: This approach defines minimum criteria for various dimensions of poverty and thus classifying those households who don’t have access to basic set of needs and services. These include characteristics such as drinking water which is piped to their homes, caloric and protein requirement of their food consumption, toilets, sewage, toilets, adequate housing, overcrowding, literacy, school attendance. If a household is deficient in one of the categories, they are classified as having unsatisfied basic needs.
• Asset Indicators8: This is used to measure the demographic characteristics. Assets can be classified as tangible (stores, resources) and intangible claims for material, moral or practical support, opportunity to access resources)
The ownership of assets such as land, house and dwelling characteristics (type of roof, flooring, and walls), gold, stocks, bonds, vehicles, refrigerator, television, household items is used to construct an indicator of household’s socio-economic status. Presence of services and access to basic services including clean water and electricity is also used as an indicator and thus these assets need not be owned by them but rather they have control over them. Thus, these resources include a broad range of financial, human, social, physical, natural and political capital.
• Vulnerability 9: It is basically the insecurity of individual in face of changing social, ecological, economic and political environments accompanied by shocks, other risks such as violence, crime, natural disasters, being pulled out of school etc. The extent of vulnerability relates both to the level of external threats to a household’s, individual’s or community’s welfare and to their resilience resisting and recovering from these external threats (UNDP, 1997). Vulnerability is measured by indicators such that we will have concrete data of assess a household’s risk exposure over time. These indicators include measures of participation in the formal safety net, income diversification, physical assets, human capital, links to networks, and access to credit markets. It also examines the sensitivity of their livelihoods to these factors. This kind of analysis can be quite complex and impossible to measure using simple quantitative tools and thus requires a specially designed survey. Therefore we can classify vulnerability into tangible and intangible assets: labor, human capital, productive assets, household relations and social capital. The measurement of tangible assets can be got. Thus over the years this kind of framework can be modified to get good measure of poverty levels among the people.
• Policies, Institutions, Processes and Participatory methods9
The Policies, Institutions, Processes cover a broad range of social, political, economic and environmental factors that determine peoples choices and so help to shape livelihoods and institutions will are involved in shaping the polices related to poor
Policies, Institutions, Processes and Participatory methods- laws, policies,
Trends Shocks Security
Capital Assets Livelihood assets Financial, social human, Physical, natural assets
What are the implications of this framework for redressal of poverty?
Different livelihood strategies have to be employed in the context of
Social context of cities
Urban neighborhoods contain a diversity of household types and people of varying social background. Social diversity is likely to create tensions and the need for different livelihood strategies. They rely on strong networks of solidarity between groups and individuals. In urban cities a lot of segregation happens and people often look for communities of similar kind based on say caste, language, region etc and thus trust and collaboration between people is enhanced. Therefore strong social networks based on trust, collaboration and solidarity amongst communities and households is developed and this forms a social capital which acts as a bulwark against shocks and stresses 10. But some households suffer from high levels of social fragmentation but in most cases a there is a strong solidarity between communities and thus the vulnerability has to be measured differently in different social context.
The urban economy
Due to globalization most of the urban market is based on global markets and therefore goods are relatively higher costs unlike their rural counterparts who may rely more heavily on agriculture or have access to free or common property resources. Most of the urban poor are employed in informal sector and they are low paid and have insecure job conditions. Those in informal employment don’t have labor rights. They are therefore susceptible to sudden changes such as unemployment, dangers working conditions, long hours of work, poor pay and insanitary or unsafe conditions.
Another source of vulnerability is the linkages between the cities to the global economy. Urban economies depend on the wider global economic system and are affected by national and international macro policy. Thus urban poor are vulnerable to urban economy.
Environment and health
Urban poor are mostly concentrated in high densities areas. These areas are frequently located on polluted land close to some industries or waste dumps sites, water pipes and water courses are contaminated, or on hillsides and river plains which are susceptible to landslides and flooding. Most of the urban poor working in informal sectors are vulnerable to accidents in the workplace and the health hazards associated with unsafe working environments such as lack of clean water and sanitation and water, air and noise pollution. Many urban poor people particularly women spend lots of hours in securing drinking water and other activities.
The relationship of the urban poor to systems of city governance usually depends on their legal status. Most of the settlements of urban poor are termed as illegal and they are vulnerable to demolition of their homes by the government as they occupy public property owned by state or on lands where there is dispute between two parties.
Poor try to find extra legal option to find housing near their occupation. Housing illegality leads to all other illegality such as water, electricity, sanitation, toilets, health care etc.
Some groups, defined along lines such as gender, occupation, caste or ethnicity, may be particularly vulnerable to specific shocks and stresses.
Women form a majority among the poor and are over-represented amongst the poorest. Gender differences within the incidence of poverty in urban areas are more intense than those in the rural areas.
Tools for assessing vulnerability11
Events and trends that cause stress or sudden changes in trends. Method used can be key informants and external agents who are in constant touch with the urban poor such as NGO’s , activist etc
Major occurrence of shocks such as industry closure, earthquakes, major economic reforms, group conflicts. Method used can be exact timeless of occurrence.
Access to livelihood activities throughout the year (seasonal production activities such as construction, processing of rural produce or migration for agricultural work). Methods used can be Seasonal diagrams, sample surveys
Trends such as population density, rainfall, temperatures, producer and consumer etc. Methods used can be demographic information, meteorological, price levels.
Policies, Institutions, Processes and Participatory methods
All the activities that are followed in this framework in micro level have to be supported in macro level i.e. at policy and implementation level so that urban poor is not denied the access to basic services. One area of policy that has the potential for building the security of poor households’ livelihoods is that of pro-poor policy and India has introduced many pro-poor programs and many are in implementation phase. Due to structural adjustments, the incidence of poverty is most probably likely to increase. Few examples are factors such as the loss of public sector employment and subsidized public goods and services.
Participatory methods are indicators of Cultural institutions such as rigid caste system, which has strongly influenced access to employment opportunity, education, access to tap water and other services.
Some of the innovative techniques that can be used for this framework are12
wealth ranking – assigning households to well-being categories
Venn diagrams – diagrammatic representation of key institutional interactions.
social maps – maps locating key social features
resource maps – maps identifying resources
transect walks – land-use maps based on walking through particular areas
seasonal calendars – graphical depiction of seasonal events or trends
• Capability approach
The simplest ways to approach multi dimensional view of poverty is to define poverty as non- fulfillment of any kind of human right. But anything and everything can’t be used to measure poverty by this approach. E.g. Say if any political opponent has denied a person to speak freely, that it would not qualify it as lack of human right even though the deprivation of human right has happened and thus makes it impractical to measure in this broader sense . The reason for implausible is that when viewed as a social problem and in the context of policy making, the concept of poverty has been closely linked to command over economic resources 13.
In our day to day life we use the word “poor” in a very loose sense. One who comes in car is rich and one who comes in auto rickshaw as poor or a “poor chap” who just missed a lottery by narrow margin. However when poor is discussed as a social problem, the concept has to restricted to well established link with deprivation by economic constraints. Therefore the Amartya Sen’s Capability approach14 provides a concept of poverty that satisfies both these requirements and thus replaces a uni-dimensional approach to measure poverty by only income or economic dimension. Therefore this approach includes most human right that are concerned with humans person’s right to certain fundamental freedom such as freedom from hunger, disease, malnutrition, adequate housing, clothing, illiteracy etc and thus goodness of the social structures be measured in terms of flourishing of human freedoms. Thus this freedom leads to well being of human being.
In a very crude sense, well-being can be thought of as the quality of a person’s being or living, and living itself can be seen as consisting of a set of interrelated “functioning’s”– the activities that a person can do or be. The level of well-being thus depends on the level of those functioning’s, i.e. how well a person can do or be the things that the person has reasons to value. Functionings are what individuals may value doing or being. This includes basic functionings such as literacy and avoiding preventable diseases, as well as more developed activities such as taking part in community life and enjoying social self-respect. A person’s ‘capability set’ refers to the bundle of all the functionings from which a person has the freedom to choose.
Therefore it represents a person’s freedom or opportunities to achieve well being. Poor persons have very less opportunities to pursue their well- being. Poverty seen from this dimension can be seen as low levels of capability or Sen put it as “the failure of basic capabilities to reach certain minimally acceptable levels”.
First, not all kinds of failure of capability would count as poverty. Since poverty denotes an extreme form of deprivation, only those capability failures would count as poverty that is deemed to be basic in some order of priority. Since many different communities have different type of social order , so therefore they will have different order of priority and a different basket of things that would qualify as “basic capabilities” and thus is relative. But there will be certain capabilities that would be common to all such as having adequate housing, nutrition, clothing etc.
Second, now when poverty is defined as a failure to meet a range of basic capabilities, it becomes a multidimensional concept and therefore lack of adequate income as the only dimension becomes redundant, but rather is one of the dimension of measuring poverty and also an important one because it plays an important role in measuring the command over economic resources. Income dimension distinguishes the phenomenon of poverty from a low level to high level of well-being in general. This distinction is important because while poverty implies a low level of well-being, not every case of a low level of well-being can be regarded as poverty. For example, while the absence of the capability to live a healthy life is certainly a case of a low level of well-being, but in case of ill-health caused by a genetic disorder which is hereditary, will not in itself be recognized as poverty. But ill-health caused by lack of access to basic health-care resources will be. Therefore the command over economic resources plays an important role in determining the low level of well-being.
Therefore inadequate command over access to communally owned and managed resources and also over resources that are made available through formal and informal networks of mutual support can be deemed as poverty14.
The recognition that poverty has an irreducible economic dimension does not necessarily imply the primacy of economic factors that are responsible for the cause of poverty. E.g. when a person is discriminated based on caste, class, gender and if the society denies that person access to basic services such as health care and thus it is clearly a case of capability failure that should count as poverty. Here the primary cause if the socio-cultural, political-legal frameworks that may an important role and lack of command over resources plays merely a mediating role. However, the existence of this mediating role is crucial factor in distinguishing poverty from a low level of well-being in general.
Another important factor is capacity of any individual. Everyone does not have the same capacity to convert resources into capabilities. For instance, people with different biological characteristics may require different intake of food and health care services in order to acquire the same degree of freedom to live a healthy life. Similarly, people living in different cultural environments have different style of clothing to achieve certain minimal acceptable level in society. Therefore fundamental concern of person’s capabilities is an important factor to measure poverty.
The objective of education for all must be intended to enhance the capabilities and enlarging choices and thus by building self-image and self worth, which in turn help individuals to be less vulnerable to the variations within a given context. For disadvantaged groups, education is a means of fighting poverty and also reducing the vulnerability in long run16.
Thus enhancing the capability of an individual requires increasing the “ability” needed to escape poverty and also to prevent them from falling into poverty. Poor people have not given jobs in formal sector since they don’t have any educational qualifications or degree certificates from any formal education system. This dimension of education adds to the vulnerability of poor because for employment many employers ask for formal degree certificates and not the person’s ability to do a particular job. This thus even further deprives poor people from getting a basic income for survival and thus forces them into menial work.
But the capability approach stresses on the “life skills” needed for a person, which stresses not only for psychomotor or practical skills, but also on psychosocial abilities such as life skills, that will enable a person to learn and use knowledge, to develop reasoning and analytical strengths, to manage emotions and to live with and relate to others. Therefore life skills is used to bridge the gap between the practical knowhow and the ability to do things regularly and thus break the cycle of poverty with the development of critical reasoning, building potential through social capital, understanding the consequences of behavior, feel responsible and have the ability to solve problems and taking decision that don’t compromise future generations.17
With the help of questionnaire and other quantitative and qualitative methods with closed questions or multiple choice questions or open ended questions regarding specific knowledge/facts about Decision-making and Problem Solving, Critical thinking, Self awareness, self esteem and self confidence , Negotiating/ refusing, Communicating, Cooperating, working together as a team we can measure the Life skills by this capability approach.
This is a story about a girl Kalaivani; who was working in a small shop “Giri Trading” outside a temple. An NRI who is well educated, rich underestimates a Genius Kalaivani, who was poor and had studied until 9th class. NRI accepted his ignorance about the wisdom about spirituality. She was devotion to duty and was totally involvement in her work. She had great ethics. She had done self learning about all the books (just to tool for marketing in the shop) so that she could give her customers the information and details of all the books in shop. Finally NRI was dumbstruck by her knowledge and wisdom about spirituality about human life. The story raises critical questions as to who is poor. My dimension to poverty is that of spiritual .My understanding on poverty is that, one who is morally, ethically, culturally; spiritually poor is the real poor person18.
Habitat Professional should understand the grass root problems of people. They should know how to tackle a particular situation of squatter community in such a way that the squatter view point is taken into consideration. The solution of poor people can be given by a poor person who has experienced poverty. Habitat Professionals are greatly criticized that they are good only at discussing theory, models, discussion papers etc, but they lack in practicalities. They should involve urban poor in policy making.
1, 2 “Dimensions of Urban Poverty: A Situational Analysis”, 1988, National Institute of Urban Affairs
3. “Profile of Urban Poor: An Investigation into their Demographic, Economic and Shelter Characteristics”, 1989, National Institute of Urban Affairs.
4, 5 “Dimensions of Urban Poverty: A Situational Analysis”, 1988, National Institute of Urban Affairs
7. “Profile of Urban Poor: An Investigation into their Demographic, Economic and Shelter Characteristics”, 1989, National Institute of Urban Affairs.
8 .Analyzing Urban Poverty” by J Baker and N Schuler last accessed on 07- 09-2010 on http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANPOVERTY/Resources/analyzingurbanpoverty.pdf
9.” Sustainable Livelihood approaches in urban Area: General lesions and illustration from Indian Cities”
J Farrington – 2002, last accessed on 07- 09-2010 on www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2009.pdf
10.” Sustainable Livelihood approaches in urban Area: General lesions and illustration from Indian Cities”
J Farrington – 2002, last accessed on 07- 09-2010 on www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2009.pdf
11. 12. ” Sustainable Livelihood approaches in urban Area: General lesions and illustration from Indian Cities”
J Farrington – 2002, last accessed on 07- 09-2010 on www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2009.pdf
14.” Human Rights and Poverty Reduction, A Conceptual Framework” last accessed on 09-09-2010 on “www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/PovertyReductionen”.
16 EDUCATION AND THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH: Life skills education as a bridge to human Capabilties “Katia Radja, A M Hoffman and P Bakhshi, last accessed on 10-09-2010 “http://ethique.perso.neuf.fr/Hoffmann_Radja_Bakhshi.pdf”
17” EDUCATION AND THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH: Life skills education as a bridge to human Capabilities”, Katia Radja, A M Hoffman and P Bakhshi, last accessed on 10-09-2010 “http://ethique.perso.neuf.fr/Hoffmann_Radja_Bakhshi.pdf”
Dimensions of Urban Poverty: A Situational Analysis”, 1988, National Institute of Urban Affairs
Profile of Urban Poor: An Investigation into their Demographic, Economic and Shelter Characteristics”, 1989, National Institute of Urban Affairs.
Human Rights and Poverty Reduction, A Conceptual Framework
EDUCATION AND THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH: Life skills education as a bridge to human Capabilties “ Katia Radja, A M Hoffman and P Bakhshi
- Kalaivani story http://www.thegoldenage.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=65:gems-of-india-an-inspirational-story&catid=36:articles-from-web&Itemid=27