Significant Works and Ideas of Thinkers




Three influential ideas / concepts


1. Kautilya – 350 – 283 B.C. ancient Indian Philosopher Adviser to King Chandragupta Maurya.
  1. Monarchy as the best form of government; Absolute powers to King.
  2. Saptanga theory of elements of state.
  3. Principles of public administration.
i.role of the king=PM


iii.personnel admin- value based selection

iv.welfare state concept

2. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) Former President of America and Political Scientist
  1. Importance of study of administration as science.
  2. Politics – administration dichotomy.
  3. Public administration as ‘Government in action’.


ii.policy implementation.

3. Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925) French Mining Engineer and Administrative Theorist
  1. Principles of management
  2. General theory of management / management process school.
  3. Gang plan / level jumping
i.structure as element in organsation

ii.emergency communication

iv.higher level- administrative skills

4. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1865-1915) Engineer, Inventor and Consultant
  1. Principles of scientific management.
  2. One best way” of doing things.
  3. Functional foremanship.
i.effective structures

ii.scientific division of work

iii.piece rate system-NPM,salary

iv.problem in multiple head

5. Max Weber (1864 – 1920) German Sociologist and Political Scientist
  1. Form of authority.
  2. Legal rational bureaucracy.
  3. Protestant ethic.
i.critic = modern day bureaucratic problem

ii.types of authority=development objective

6. Luther Gulick (1892-1993) American Expert on Public Admnistration. Lyndall Urwick (1891-1983) British Management Consultant
  1. Structure based principles of organization.
  2. POSDCORB as functions of executive.
  3. Bases of departmentalization.
i.executive function=common to any management

ii.failure of structural design in organization

iii.creation of department

7. Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) American Political Scientist, Social Worker and Management Consultant
  1. Constructive conflict
  2. Integration
  3. Depersonalizing orders
i.conflict-multi cultural society

ii.resolution of conflict

iii.ideas about power,authority,control-modern day rights based developmental model

8. George Elton Mayo (1880-1949) Australian social Psychologist and Industrial Researcher
  1. Human relations approach to organizations.
  2. Hawthorne effect.
  3. Role of informal organizations and groups in effecting the behaviour of individuals at work.
i.informal organization-organisational improvements

ii.communication as control

iii.natural leadership-development domain

9. Chester, I. Barnard (1886-1961) American Executive and Management Thinker
  1. Acceptance theory of authority and “Zone of Indiffference”
  2. Contribution – satisfaction equilibrium
  3. Functions of the executive
i.communication for mature individuals

ii.role of a administrator

iii.personnel admin-designing incentives

10. Herbert A. Simon (1908-1970) American Psychologist and motivation Theorist
  1. Administration as decision-making
  2. Bounded rationality.
  3. Zone of acceptance.
i.decision in public administration

ii.behaviour & decision

11. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) American Psychologist and Motivation Theorist
  1. Hierarchy of needs.
  2. Self-actualisation.
  3. Peak experiences.
i.motivation in organization incentives-perssonal administration

iii.organisational improvments

12. Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) American Social Psychologist and Management Consultant
  1. Theory “X” and Theory “Y”
  2. Management education from cosmology to reality.
  3. Transactional influence.
i.theory y= modern organization
13. Chris Argyris (July 16, 1923) American Behavioural Theorist and Management Writer
  1. Maturity – Immaturity theory.
  2. T-Group Techniques; Single loop and Double loop learning
  3. Organisatoinal learning
i.understanding HR

ii.sensitivity traning- development administration

iii.system learning

14. Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000) American Psychologist and Management Consultant
  1. Hygiene – Motivation theory.
  2. Job-enrichment.
  3. Job loading.
i.job design

ii.challenging job design for matured individuals

15. Rensis Likert (1903 – 1981) American Organisational Psychologist and Educator.
  1. Management system 1-4.
  2. Linking pin model.
  3. Interaction – influence system. of organization

ii.personnel administration,development administration

16. Fred W. Riggs (1917-2008) Chinese born American Political Scientist and Administrative Model Builder
  1. Prismatic society.
  2. Sala model of administrative
  3. Development as diffraction and integration.
i.bureaucracy –india,developing countries

ii.problems of developing countries

17. Yehezkel Dror (born in 1928) Israeli Political Scientist and Pioneer in policy studies
  1. Societal direction system as a mega-knowledge system.
  2. Optimal Model” of policy making.
  3. paradigms of policy science.
i.poicy design

ii.india & policy science

iii.models for policy design

18. Dwight Waldo (1913-2000) American Political scientist and “Defining figure” in public Administration.
  1. Public administration as political approach.
  2. Professional orientation to public administration.
  3. New Public Administration.
19. Peter Drucker (1909-2005) American Management Thinker, Professor and Consultant
  1. Management by objectives.
  2. Restructuring Government / New Public Management.
  3. Knowledge society and knowledge workers.
20. Karl Marx (1818-1883) German Revolutionary Philosopher and Political Economist
  1. Bureaucracy as an exploitative class instrument.
  2. Materialistic interpretation of history.
  3. Alienation of bureaucracy.

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