Distribution of minerals, fossil fuels and renewable sources of energy in India

Distribution of Minerals:-

  • Minerals are valuable natural resources. The country is endowed with huge resources of many metallic and non-metallic minerals.
  • Chhotanagpur Plateau is known as the mineral heart land of India.
  • Odisha with a share of 9.63% leads in total value of mineral production followed by Andhra Pradesh (8.98%), Rajasthan (7.93%), Chhattisgarh (7.77%), Jharkhand (6.54%) and Gujarat (6.40%)
  • Minerals can be further divided into Metallic and Non-Metallic and are as follows:-
  • Metallic Minerals:- *Figures pertaining to 2009-10
Iron Ore
  • Varieties of Iron Ore include Magnetite, Haematite, Limonite and Siderite.
  • Jharkhand with about 25% of the total reserves leads the way for having the largest reserve.
  • High grade ore deposits in Karnataka are in Kemmangundi(in bababudan Hills) and Sandur & Hospet(Bellary district).
  • India’s richest haematite deposits are located in barbil-Koira valley in Orissa.
  • The Bailadila mine is the largest mechanised mine in Asia.
  • India is the 5th largest exporter of iron ore in the world.
  • India has the 2nd largest manganese ore reserves in the world.
  • The main reserves are found in Karnataka followed by Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Goa.
  • Orissa contributes 25% of the total production of manganese ore, Maharashtra (24%), MP (25%) and Karnataka (13%).
  • The belt comprising of Nagpur-Bhandara districts of Maharashtra and Balaghat-Chhindwara districts of MP is the important region for manganese ore production.
  • Most of the reserves are concentrated in Orissa, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Orissa is the largest producer (99%) followed by Karnataka.
  • Major copper ore deposits are located in Singhbhum district (Jharkhand), Balaghat district (MP) and Jhunjhun and Alwar districts(Rajasthan).
  • Kalahandi and Koraput belt of Odisha is the largest bauxite region of the country.
  • Karnataka leads the way in terms of Gold with 99% production with gold fields in Kolar, Hutti and Ramgiri followed by Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is found in Panna belt of MP, Wajrakarur Kimberlite belt in Andandpur district of Andhra Pradesh.
Other or Miscellaneous
  • Silver:- mainly produces from Zawar mines of Udaipur district in Rajasthan.
  • Orissa has the largest deposit of Nickel.
  • Karnataka is the leading state in Lead and Zinc reserves followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra and West Bengal.
  • More than 99% of the total zinc in India is produces in Zawar area in Udaipur district of Rajasthan.
  • Gujarat accounts for more than half of Salt production followed by Rajasthan.

  • Non-Metallic Minerals :- (Figures of 2009-10)
  • The three major types of Mica found in India are- Muscovite, Phlogopite and Biotite.
  • Andhra Pradesh leads the way in the terms of the total in situ reserves followed by Bihar and Jharkhand then Rajathan.
  • About 95% of India’s mica is found in three states namely, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.
  • Nellore Belt of Andhra Pradesh and Gaya-Hazaribagh (Jharkhand-Bihar), Giridih and Mungur to Bhagalpur belt are important centres of mica production.
  • High quality ruby mica is found in Bihar-Jharkhand mica belt.
  • Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and exist in almost all the geological sequences from pre-cambrian to recent except in Gondwana.
  • The total reserves in decreasing order Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, MP, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh.
  • Jhamarkota mine of Rajasthan States Mines and Mineral Limited (RSMML) alone accounted for 88% of the total production followed by MP(12%)
  • About 90% reserves are concentrated in MP, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, WB, UP and Maharashtra.
  • The principal producing states of dolomite are Andhra Pradesh (30%), Chhattisgarh (83%) and Orissa (18%)
  • Two different minerals are included in this namely Amphibole and Chrysotile.
  • Chrysotile accounts for 80% of the asbestos of commercial use.
  • Rajasthan is the largest producer with 94% of the total production in India.
  • Andhra Pradesh is the second largest producer followed by Karnataka.
  • By and large the entire production comes from Rajasthan (99%), remaining 1% from J&K and Gujarat.
  • Nearly 50% of total output is accounted by Gujarat followed by Kerala (28%) and Rajasthan (13%)
  • Rajasthan is the principal producer with 74% share.

Distribution of Fossil Fuels in India:-

Coal(Black Gold)
  • Coal occurs in rock sequences mainly of two geological ages-Gondwana and tertiary deposits.
  • Gondwana Coal are located in coalfields occupying the Indian heartland, while tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland.
  • Varieties of coal are Anthracite-lignite-bituminous-Peat.
  • Anthracite coal-the best quality coal comprising of 80-95% carbon. It is found only in small quantities in J&K.
  • Bituminous coal-the most widely used coal(40-80% carbon) found in Jharkhand, Orissa, WB, Chhattisgarh and MP.
  • Lignite coal- also known as brown coal(40-50% carbon). It is found Palna of Rajasthan, Neyveli of Tamil Nadu, Lakhimpur of Assam and Karewa of J&K.
  • Peat- it is the first stage of transformation of wood into coal and contains less than 40% carbon.
  • Coalfields of Orissa contain the largest reserves.
  • Over 90% of the lignite reserves are concentrated in Tamil Nadu.
  • The major coalfields of Jharkhand are in Jharia, Bokaro, Girdih and Karanpura. Jharia has been recognised as the store house of the best metallurgical coal in the country.
Petroleum or Crude oil
  • India’s most important oil-bearing area in the eastern part of the Himalayas is Assam. Digboi Oilfield in Lakhimpur district in Upper Assam marked a landmark in the development of India’s sources of oil. Naharkatiya oilfield situated near Digboi is the second largest oilfield in India.
  • The western coast Offshore fields have assumed great importance after the discovery of oil in Bombay High. Bombay High(Ratnagiri district) is the most productive oilfield.
  • In Gujarat, Cambay basin is the site of the main oil-bearing sands of Oligocene age. The Ankaleshwar Oilfield is the most important oilfield discovered so far in Gujarat.
  • Ahmedabad-Kalol region, also produces oil.
Natural Gas
  • Natural gas is produced in two ways-as an association gas along with crude production and as a free gas from exclusive gas fields.
  • The Ankleshwar gasfield, Bombay High, Bassein fields and Moran and Naharkatiya gasfields in Assam are among the main sources.
  • Natural gas is available as seepages in Nom-Chick, Miao Punga and Laptang Pung in Arunachal Pradesh, areas of Baramura range in Tripura and Jwalamukhi and Kangra in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Krishna-Godavari off-shore basin is reported to be the largest discovery of natural gas in the world.
  • Natural gas has also been discovered in Punjab(Ferozpur dictrict), WB(Midnapore district), J&K(in parts of Mausar-Maradpur) and Tamil Nadu(Thanjavur and Chinglepet districts).
  • Pipelines are most convenient, efficient and economical mode of transporting liquids like petroleum, natural gas and so on.
  • Some of the important pipelines being Naharjatia-Nunmati-Barauni pipeline.
  • Jamnagar-Loni LPG pipeline
  • Haldia-Kolkata pipeline
  • India imports natural gas through transitional pipelines like Myanmar-Bangladesh-India gas pipeline, Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan(TAP) pipeline.

Distribution of Renewable resources in India:-

Wind Energy
  • India has the 5th largest installed wind power capacity in the world.
  • The installed capacity comes mainly from across Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat.
  • Tamil Nadu generates around 35% of India’s total wind capacity and is the leader in wind energy in India.
  • The largest installation of wind turbines in the country so far has been in Muppandal-Perungudi near Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu.Another wind turbine has been set up at Kayattar in Tamil Nadu.
Solar Energy
  • Since inception the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources(MNES) has been implementing a solar energy programme to provide electricity to rural and remote areas, make energy available for pumping of water for irrigation and drinking purposes.
  • The use of solar energy for thermal applications is well known in the country. The applications include water heating, cooking, drying, space heating, distillation and power generation.
  • Solar development programmes have been launched on several islands in the Bay of Bengal, in the deserts of Jodhpur in Aligarh and in Coimbatore.
  •  India is planning to install the World’s largest Solar Power Plant with 4,000 MW Capacity near Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan.
  • Gujarat has been a leader in solar power generation and contributes 2/3rd of the 900 MW of photovoltaics in the country. The State has commissioned Asia’s biggest solar park at Charanka village.
Ocean Energy
  • There are three ways of harnessing power from the high seas which includes taming the waves, harnessing the tidal power and using the differences in temperatures between the layers of the ocean i.e. by the technique of ocean thermal energy conversion(OTEC).
  • Experiments of OTEC are being carried out in Kulasekarapattinamin Tamil Nadu.
  • In India, tidal energy can be harnessed for power generation from potential sites such as Gulf of Kachchh and Cambay in Gujarat and Sunderbans in WB.
  • Biogas is an efficient fuel when burnt in specially-designed stives for cooking purposes and in silk mantle lamps for lighting.
  • It can also be used in dual fuel engines for motive power when attached with alternators for generation of electricity.
  • The National Biogas Management Programme(NBMP) aims at providing cheap source of biogas energy and to produce and use enrich organic manure.
  • The biggest potential for Biogas is in UP followed by MP and Andhra Pradesh.

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