Q: What do you understand by the term ‘probity in governance’ ? Examine some of the measures taken by the Government for the same
ANS: Probity in governance is an essential and vital requirement for an efficient and effective system of governance and for socio-economic development. An important requisite for ensuring probity in governance is absence of corruption. The other requirements are effective laws, rules and regulations governing every aspect of public life and, more important, an effective and fair implementation of those laws, etc. Indeed, a proper, fair and effective enforcement of law is a facet of discipline. Unfortunately for India, discipline is disappearing fast from public life and without discipline, as the Scandinavian economist- sociologist, Gunnyar Myrdal, has pointed out, no real progress is possible. Discipline implies inter alia public and private morality and a sense of honesty. While in the West a man who rises to positions of higher authority develops greater respect for laws, the opposite is true in our country. Here, the mark of a person holding high position is the ease with which he can ignore the laws and regulations. We are being swamped by a culture of indiscipline and untruth; morality, both public and private, is at a premium. This paper explores whether some legislative measures can be designed to ensure probity in governance. It is true that instilling a sense of discipline among the citizens is more the function of the society, its leaders, political parties and public figures and less a matter which can be legislated upon. Even so, things have come to such a pass that measures need to be contemplated.
“The Seven Principles of Public Life:
Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends.
Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organizations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.
Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
Leadership: Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.”.
Critically examine how differently the British and the nationalist sources analysed the 1857 sepoy revolt.
1. G.B. malleson, an english officer in india, worte a book, Indian Mutiny, in which he considered this revolt as mutiny between military bureaucracy.
2. according to T.R.holmes, it was a conflict between civilisation and barberism.
3. william taylor described this revolt as mohamadian’s conspiracy.
1. V.D.Savarkar who was a revolutionary turned communist and was know as father of hindutva, describes 1857 revolt as the first national war of independence.
2. according to A.C.majumdar, it is neither first, nor national war of independence. becoz the parallel events took placed earlier also ex. vellor mutiny, 1806
Q3. The institution of the governor has been sidelined in the administering of tribal areas despite clear constitutional guidelines to the contrary. In the light of some of recent related events, critically comment on the statement.
The Constitution of India, through Article 244, has mandated the Governor of a State with wide-ranging powers for the administration of tribal areas under the Fifth and Sixth Schedule. The governors of the 9 states which contain Scheduled Areas, are required to make an annual report to the President regarding the administration of the Scheduled Areas of his respective state, on whose basis the Union can direct the state to execute developmental measures for such areas.
Few recent events, such as inaction of AP’s governor against bauxite mining in tribal areas, and that of Orissa’s governor against the setting up of a steel unit by POSCO in Orissa and of bauxite mine in niyamgiri and the petition against ceding of administration power by the governor to the CM of chattisgarh in munshi vs state of chattisgarh are cases in point
He does two things:
1. Pass/implement the directions from the union. He acts as an executive.
2. Take the advice of the local and pass it on to the union, as a report.
In both cases he has no dicscretion!!!
Q4. Year 2000 was pivotal in the relationship between India and Russia. Examine why and also throw light on how relationship between two countries has evolved since.
1)Energy security:Partnership in Arctic, siberia and sakhalin oil and gas fields,along with Kudankulam nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu.
2)Defence: Air superiority fighters like Sukhoi 30 mki,MIG29 and MIG29k,attack,anti submarine and transport helicopters, Nuclear submarine INS chakra,Aircraft carrier INS vikramaditya and many destroyers.Joint R&D,manufacturing of Brahmos missile, 5th generation fighter plane etc
3)Space: joint Research and development in space technology like Chandrayaan 2, Glonass,cryogenic engines etc
4)Economic cooperation:cooperation in BRICS bank,Trade facilitation,relaxed Visa norms etc have resulted in steep increase in bilateral trade.
5)Diplomatic:Continuous support for India’s permanent seat in UN security council,Issue of Kashmir,India’s support for Russia in cremia and against sanctions by west,support in matters of middle east etc
5. Critically discuss the need for making the right to health a fundamental right in India.
The WHO Constitution enshrines the highest attainable standard of health as a fundamental right of every human being.
The right to health includes access to timely, acceptable, and affordable health care of appropriate quality.
Yet, about 150 million people globally suffer financial catastrophe annually, and 100 million are pushed below the poverty line as a result of health care expenditure.
The right to health means that States must generate conditions in which everyone can be as healthy as possible. It does not mean the right to be healthy.
Vulnerable and marginalized groups in societies tend to bear an undue proportion of health problems
1: High % of income of a person is spent as out of pocket expenditure because of dismal state of healthcare services/system at block/community and district Healthcare institutions.
Problems being a. Number of personnel is very less. b. Quality of service is also poor.
Free Drugs, Free diagnostics and free emergency care services in public hospitals, free emergency response and patient-transport systems would be the norm, thus providing a high degree of access and financial protection at secondary and tertiary care levels.
primary aim of the NHP 2015 is to inform, clarify, strenthen and prioritize the role of the Government in shaping health system in all dimension- investment in health, organization and financing of healthcare services, prevention of disease and promotion of good health, developing human resources, encouraging medical pluralism, building the knowledge base required for better health, financial protection and regulation and legislature of health.
Q . Explain about municipal bonds
A municipal bond is a bond issued by a local government, or their agencies.The key defining feature of this type of bond is that it is issued by a public-use entity at a lower level of government than the sovereign. A default of the local bond should not automatically trigger a default on the sovereign bonds.Revenues from the Project, which it funds, will then be used to repay the interest and principal on these bonds.
Municipal bonds where the funds raised are earmarked for one project are termed revenue bonds. These have now been permitted for public offering by SEBI.Municipal bonds have been in existence in India since 1997. Cities such as Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Nashik and Madurai have issued them; mostly privately placed with institutions, and not tradable.
Solving urban infrastructure problems requires a lot of money. ‘Muni bond’ issues could help corporations directly raise funds without looking to State grants or agencies such as World Bank. Large institutional investors such as pension funds and insurance companies are always on the lookout for look for less risky avenues to invest. Municipal bonds could tap these sources of fund and help get many projects off the ground.
S&P believes that nearly half of the issuers ‘only deserve junk rating’. But SEBI has quite a few safeguards to ensure that the risks in Indian municipal bonds are reduced.The money raised from municipal bonds can boost quality of life in cities. Job prospects in the locality may also look up. These bonds may also prove a good investment option for investors looking beyond fixed deposits and small saving schemes.
Municipal bonds in India enjoy tax-free status if they conform to certain rules and their interest rates will be market-linked.Tradibility allows it not to be held till maturity.
SEBI has put in place several conditions for city corporations to tap the public. One, the corporation needs to have investment grade credit rating and must contribute at least 20 per cent of the project cost. Two, it must not have defaulted on any loans in the last one year. Three, it required to maintain full asset cover to repay the principal amount. Revenues from the project for which bonds were raised are to be kept in a separate escrow account. And banks or financial institutions would monitor the account regularly.In case of public issue of debt, the regulation says the revenue bonds intended to be issued shall have a minimum investment rating and it should have a minimum tenure of three years or such period as specified by the board from time to time. The maximum tenure should not exceed thirty yearsIn the event of non-receipt of minimum subscription all application money shall be refunded within 12 days
Q: You are working a Superintendent of Police in a district where trafficking or women and children is rampant. Your wife who is very concerned and involved in many social works in the city insists you to come up with some innovative ideas to prevent trafficking, to identify trafficked persons and rescue them in your capacity as Superintendent of Police. The problem is severe and has affected thousands of families over the years and it has also brought bad name to the district.
What measures will you come up with to address the issues raised by your wife? Suggest pragmatic and logical measures.
1. Strengthen the ground and on field investigating and raiding teams.
2. Making the local police more responsive and responsible by constant vigil and supervision. Strengthening the mechanism by launching helpline and distress numbers.
3. Involving local NGOs in the task.
4. Carrying out searches for any evidence of planning on the part of trafficking elements.
5. Ensuring right, strict and timely action against the culprits so that more such elements do not crop up.
6. Rescuing, rehabilitating and resettling the victims with special care and secrecy so that they do not fall in the wrath of further social trauma.
7. Educating the locals about basic safety methods.
8. Making the children aware of good and bad elements of the society so that they do not trust anybody for little favours or monetary baits.
9. Sensitising the people in general and promoting a culture of vigilance and self defence by regular community interactions.
Q1. The United Nations Environment Programme, through the Stockholm convention on POPs, listed 12 organochlorine pesticides as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Most of them are used in India by farmers and are found at alarming levels on vegetables and fruits. Examine the magnitude, implications of and reasons behind blatant use of these pesticides and insecticides in India.
The use of insecticides and pesticides far crosses the safe limit in India, due to the following reasons:
1. Ignorance and lack of awareness amongst farmers about the safety levels
2. Illegal, unauthorized and easy access to these insecticides and pesticides, especially at the grassroots level
3. No standardized testing before packaging of the food product that informs consumers of the levels of pesticides and insecticides
4. Inadequate support from the state for irrigation, fertilizers, fair market price and most important storage facilities that forces farmers to use higher levels of pollutants to maximize their yield and also make them resistant to spoilage.
5. No stringent mechanism to check that levels prescribed by the Government are adhered to
6. Global taste preferences, which demand the availability of off-seasonal produce. This requires long storage and transportation, and hence higher use of chemicals