Bangalore

It is estimated that 40 per cent of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater, whereas the remaining part is pumped from the Cauvery river through a distance of 95 kilometres and a head of 1000 metres.

Bangalore receives 970 mm rainfall annually and the number of rainy days is 59.8. Highest amount of rainfall is received during April to November, while the rest of the months receive scanty rainfall. Peak runoff is 50 millimeters per hour. Due to the availability of rainwater throughout the year, water is basically stored in these rainwater harvesting systems and used for non-potable purposes. Water from the rooftops is led into storage structures. First flushing is normally done by providing an extra length of pipe to collect the polluted 2.5 mm of rainfall. Filters are made of sponge and a mixture of sand, gravel and charcoal. After first flushing and filtration water is led into under ground sumps (which are very common in Bangalore) or to a new storage tank.

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The overflow from this tank is taken to an open well to recharge the aquifer.The geological formations are predominantly granite and granitic gneiss, with joints and fractures in abundance due to intense chemical weathering of rocks. The depth of weathering varies from 0.2 m to 20 m. This geological set-up offers an immense scope for recharging of ground aquifers.

The undulating terrain with gentle slopes draining into lakes offer an ideal situation for water harvesting. In the urban area of Bangalore waterbodies cover about 5 per cent of land.

Potential of rainwater harvesting

Name of City
Proposed area for 2011(category and area in Sq km)
Annual water harvesting potential in billion litres
100 per cent harvesting
50 per cent harvesting
Bangalore Development area 597.0 579.10 289.55
Green Belt 682.0 661.54 330.77
Total area 1279 1240.64 620.32

Notes: Average annual Rainfall = In mm 970; Annual demand-supply gap 49.28 billion litres
Case studies:

The project:
The industrial unit of a 20 hectare

Breakup of the area:
Rooftop area: 29,961 Sq. m
Paved area : 43,095.66 Sq.m
Unpaved area : 129,286.98 Sq.m
The total rainwater harvesting potential of the site is 185 million litres.

A pilot project was set up in May 2000 covering about 1, 280 sq.m of roof area for the administrative block and the canteen building. With storage capacity of 42,00 litres, the unit collects about 1.05 million litres per year. The system is expected to pay back for itself in five years.

 

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Bio Energy Technique with Natural Farming for Sustainable Food Production

Bio Energy Technique with Natural Farming for Sustainable Food Production

Atul Kulkarni

Diagnosis of the Problem

In recent decaded increased emissions of GHGs into the atmosphere have a great effect on the Earth’s climate and have several consequences on agriculture due to changes in the geosphere and biosphere. One of the important consequences is variation in total rainfall and its seasonal variation which is critical for agricultural crops particularly in areas of rain fed agriculture which occupies greater proportion of agriculture land. The climate change has effects on sensitivity of plant life to variations in different parts of the ecological system where these plants are located. In India nearly 70% of people are in rural areas and agriculture is the largest supporter of livelihoods to many of these people and thus climate change affects these rural farmers.

1. Analysis Nutrition Status in India

Many of the rural poor of low-income and even middle income families are likely to be deficient in vitamins and minerals . In fact, the deficiencies are large, when we consider the current ICMR recommendations. To quoto one instance, in the age group of four to six years, the ratio of average intake to “recommended daily allowance” is only 16% for Vitamin A, 35% for iron and 45% for calcium. Therefore these are very dismal figures.

According to National Family Health Survey 3 in 2005-06, 55% of the children below the age of 5 are underweight and stunted

Under nutrition is substantially higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Even in urban areas, however, 40% of children are stunted and 33% are underweight.

From the Nutritional Status of Indian Adults 2004-05, the Body Mass Index of the Men and Women has drastically decreased from 1975-76 to 2004-05. Nutritional Status of Indian Adults set the benchmark for Body Mass Index( BMI) as 18.5 and the proportion of men below BMI in 2004-5 was 34% and proportion of female below BMI is 40%.

As we can see that, there is a great decrease in Body mass index from 1975 to 2004-05. Hence the the nutritional status among the India’s is declining due to declining nutitional food

      1. 2. Climate change has direct bearing on the biology of plant growth and other dyanmics of the biosphere and geosphere

        1. i ) Effects of temperature increase, changes in rainfall pattern and other factors

The variation of climate variable such as temperature, rainfall etc have an effect on physical, chemical and biological process of the plant and determine the productivity of agriculture. The crops respond up to certain thresholds beyond which they show a decrease in crop growth.

ii) Multiple stresses on crops

There can be multiple stresses on crops such as scarcity of availability of water resources, loss of bio-diversity and degradation of natural resources such as soil erosion, salinisation of irrigated areas, dry land degradation from overgrazing, over-extraction of ground water, greater susceptibility of crops to diseases (FAO, 2003) .

Impacts of climate change on irrigation water requirements may be large. Since the temperature rises, evaporation of water will be more and water needed for crop irrigation will be more

Another impact is on weed, insect pests. The studies on the weed, insect pests investigate pest damage as a separate function of either CO2 or temperature. (IPCC AR4)

These effects have a great impact on small land agriculturalist especially in developing countries like India and are thus vulnerable to various social, economic and environmental stresses.

iii) Vulnerability of carbon soil pool

There is also vulnerability of carbon soil pool. There are multiple factors which determine the ability of soil to capture carbon such as land- use planning of forestation-reforestation etc, Nitrogen fertilisation, and irrigation and tillage practices.

Therefore, all the above-mentioned factors have a negative impact on the Indian Agriculture.

3. Environment Impacts

Higher use of chemicals resulted in degradation of soil affecting soil health and life of the diverse flora and fauna. Mismanagement of the soil resulted erosion of topsoil, lower crop response and reduced productivity against higher chemical and energy inputs, water and labour needs. The soil was dying and chemical farming became a painful experience.

Due to hybrid and compounded pollution some scientists think that we have reached a stage, which may be termed “Irreversible”.

However several communities started thinking back in terms of organic farming. Organic farming methods, which used to give wonderful results even fifteen years ago, in all the places, now fail to do so, due to hybrid pollution. Pollution is the disease. Changes in soil composition due to pollution become drastic and the results become disastrous. Soil becomes unable to sustain plants and even life. As the chemical and molecular structure of bacteria change and they become more immune to conventional medical methods. The nutrients are robbed from our environment by pollution. The disastrous effects of the environmental changes are seen in the rising diseases in human beings, plants and animals.

VISION

Our vision is a promote Natural Farming and innovative technique of Bio Energy

Project Scale:

Integrated farming system

The input costs need for growing crops such as seeds, labour, manure etc have great cost bearing. Invariably farmers approach the local money lenders in that village and he gives them money easily without much demand for big procedures such as filling forms or collateral etc, but takes a thumb impression on a blank sheet as guarantee. Most of the farmers borrow money from local money lenders and if the crops yield better they pay off the money else they are debt ridden. The defaults on loan creates living nightmare for them and many commit suicide. Also the agricultural labourers also suffer more actor problems and thus they are caught in the web of debt.

A workable Solution

Farmers usually work for 75-90 days more or less in a year and remaining period they are idle. But we want them to be engaged in work for more than 300 days and earn more than double the income using the same acreage of agriculture land. We have selected a set of farmers on the basis of permanent land right of farm land, possession of 1-5 acre of land or more, proper land right documents and willingness to adopt best management practices in farming, ability to maintain and track the natural farming methods on daily basis and willingness to give feedback.

This will also help to break down the caste division in the village since farmers are willing to work in co-operation. This shall also help farmers not to move out of their agriculture occupation and also help youth to think that farming is viable economic source for their livelihood.

One observation is that, when we interviewed farmers and asked them about those who committed suicide, they said that they had few thousand rupees as debt and since they were not able to face the community lead preferred to commit suicide. Should we allow farmers to commit suicide for just few thousand rupees of debt when several rich countries have billions of dollars as debt? Therefore, this project intends to empower the farmers to earn better livelihood so that their efforts are recognised and rewarded. A proactive approach, right suggestions, personal interaction and feedback, introducing best management techniques in farming are some of the methods adopted in this project.

Management techniques

  1. Soil management

  2. Seed management

  3. Water management

  4. Energy management

This project shall be implemented in farmland ranging from minimum 1-2 acres to 200-300 acres so as to make farming self-sustained.

Components


1. Climate protection
2.Sustainable agriculture and conserve soil fertility
3.Food security
4.Integrated water, seed, soil management
5.Resource conservation
6.Health /Nutritional value
7.Employment generation activity.

Our Solution

To solve all the above-mentioned problems, modern science normally considers soil improvement and to some extent water quality improvement but atmosphere is the biggest single factor which affects plant kingdom, soil and water quality. We know plants feed themselves in two distinct ways, from the atmosphere and from the soil. Elements taken from the atmosphere are carbon 44%, Oxygen 44%, hydrogen 6% and nitrogen (via the microbial world) 2 or 3%. So 95 to 98% of plants dry weight of plants food is taken from the air. Only 2-5% of a plants diet comes from the soil. It clearly appears that we have a lot to do to control pollution. We can thus conclude that plants feed quantitatively from the atmosphere and qualitatively from the soil. So now science has to investigate if there is a way to make atmosphere more nutritious and fragrant and thus improve soil quality and water resources. NATURAL ORGANIC FARMING and BIO ENERGY TECHNIQUE IS THE ANSWER.

Model

Holistic Natural Farming techniques with sustainable crop selection, seed management, water management , energy usage and innovative technique of Bio Energy technique to overcome pests and other ill effects in agriculture

Natural farming is an agricultural practice that deals with growing crops which use techniques such as crop rotation, green manure as compost and biological pest control. Natural farming meant total self reliance in farm inputs, water conservation, energy, local cow breed development, value addition of farm produce and direct marketing to consumers. This practice does not include any form of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators. Here the soil is kept healthy through micro nutrients and symbiotic relationships between micro organisms, fungi and dead and decaying plant and animal waste to maintain soil fertility and health. Vermicompost, dead plant matter and animal excreta are the main sources of fertilizers in this agricultural method. Studies have shown that organically grown crops have higher nutrient levels and higher yields if practiced well.

The following natural farming techniques are first implemented and then Bio Energy technique is used for best agriculture produce.

The following Innovative techniques in natural farming

1. Natural Organic manure

1) First put a layer of all farm residues, trash, biomass from border plants about 6-9 inches thick. Sprinkle this with some water.

2) Put about 50 litres Cow dung slurry over this layer.

3) Cover the total layer with any good soil. Repeat this procedure till you reach the 1.5 M height.

4) Maintain moisture in the pile by sprinkling water regularly.

5) Allow the above pile for one month the pile temperature goes upto 650C killing pathogens and seeds.

Simultaneously take 5 litres cow milk and prepare curd and allow one month fermenting keep undisturbed. After one month turning of compost pile becomes necessary. Prepare about 50kg soil mixture collected from the top one inch surface layer below the following yajnya trees: Peepal, Banyan, Ficus glomerata, Mango, Sandalwood, Aegle marmelos, Accacia catechu, Butea frondosa, Prosopis spicigua. Also prepare butter milk from fermented curd by adding 50 liters water. Add to this 2 kg organic jaggery,

The above soil mixture (contains diverse types of useful micro organisms) and fermented solution (lactic acid bacteria’s) must be mixed in the compost pile while giving the first turn. Repeat only turning one per week for three times. After 60-75 days organic compost having a good odour, is ready. 1000 kg compost is applied per acre. We prepare about 70 MT compost from dung of three local breed cows only.

2. Natural Bio-Pesticide – Liquid Manure

Basis: 200 Litres / acre / application

Raw Materials

1) Cow dung – 30-40 kg

2) Cow Urine – 3-5 Litres

3) Plants having latex (Milk hedge, 3-5 Kg Calotropis, Jatropha, Sweet scented Oleander)

4) Plants having strong aroma – 3-5 kg (Parthenium, Lantana, Eupatorium, Cassia, Datura)

5) Oil cake (groundnut, Pongamia, – 1-2 kg Neem)

6) Jaggery – 1 kg

7) Water – To make up 200 litres

All the plants material should be chopped into finer pieces and mixed with other ingredients and fermented for 1 week. Daily stirring of the solution for aeration should be done. Filtered Liquid Manure is given through irrigation water, 200 Liters per acre. Sasyamrutha also helps to control pests and diseases.

3. Preparation of Bio-Insecticide

Caltrops leaf, Adhatoda leaf, Ipomoea carnea leaf and Morinda corriea. All these leaves are mixed with equal proportion and made into fine pieces and soaked in 10 liters of cow urine and left in air tight for 7 days and then sprayed to crops and acts as Bio-Insecticide.

4. Preparation of Effective Micro Organisms

Take Banana 1 kg, Papaya 1kg, Pumpkin 1 Kg, and all these ingedrients are mixed thoroughly in a pot, kept air tight in shade for 30 days , then sprayed on crops. This will help better crop productivity.

One these natural farming techniques are first implemented and then Bio Energy technique can be used for best agriculture produce.

Bio Energy technique

Bio Energy technique denotes the process of removing the toxic conditions of the atmosphere through the agency of fire. It is prepared in the copper pyramid tuned to the biorhythm of sunrise/sunset and helps in process of purification of the atmosphere through the agency of fire and if practiced regularly yields great healing power to the atmosphere as well to the crop. Cow ghee, Cow dung, rice grain are the specific substances which are burnt in a copper pyramid at exact timings of sunrise/sunset a specific effect is guaranteed to occur.

Effects of Bio Energy technique

When Bio Energy technique is performed, the energy from the fire and the subtle energies from the sun at sunrise and sunset are generated into the atmosphere and thus make conditions conductive to an anti pollutionary change. The pyramid is generator, the fire is turbine.

Due to Bio Energy technique, the atmosphere heals and plants evolve networks of veins that are cylindrical and larger than normal, permitting water and nutrients easier movement to all parts of the plant. Thus the growth and reproduction cycles of plant is enhanced. Also, it increases the production of chlorophyll and plant breathing, thereby helping the oxygen recycling system.

Bio Energy technique produces a special sound and we can test this Bio Energy technique with an oscilloscope and one can notice a special sound coming from fire. It is sound that heals which is the key. Fire produces sound, but it also reacts with sound and creates a resonance effect which invigorates the cells of plants leading to better reproductive cycles.

ESTABLISHING A BIO ENERGY TECHNIQUE RESONANCE POINT ON A FARM

Resonance Technique is a part of Bio Energy technique. Simple practices are used to heal large areas of diseased land in a short time. We can install a Resonance Point to heal up to 100 acres of land. For this 10 new copper pyramids are needed which are placed on the farm. Two simple natural huts to be built on the farm.

Bio Energy technique Hut

An Bio Energy technique Hut Size 3×4 meter is built in the centre of the farm. The longer side aligned with the east/west axis. We have 4 pyramids in this hut. The main pyramid is buried 50 cms depth, a column of mud is built on top of it, to an approximate height of 50 cms and another activated pyramid is placed on top of it, directly above the buried pyramid. This way, the pyramid on the column is at heart level of the person sitting on the floor in front of the column. The pyramid on the column will not be used again, but acts as a Resonance Pyramid. Then two of the other activated pyramids are placed on smaller mud platforms on the right and left hand side in front of the main column. The one on the left is for the daily purposes. This way there is no interference with the subtle healing energies. Done daily by any person irrespective of caste, creed, religion, age, sex.

Resonance Pillars

The other four pyramids are just installed at the border of the farm or maximum 360 meters north south, east and west from the central hut. The four pyramids are kept on a column of mud at a height of heart level of a person standing. The pyramids are protected so that no rain or other material enters them. Along with the healing fires application of Bio Energy technique Ash to the plants, soil is also important. Bio Energy technique Ash solution in water is used for seed treatment, rooting media for plant cuttings, treating the roots before transplantation, spraying on the plants, dusting on the crop and directly adding to the soil and compost. Bio Energy technique Ash is also used for treating the source of water of open well bore well, Lake Etc.

The concept of permaculture:

Permaculture design builds into conservation, high yields and continuous plant growth. The design of permaculture looks into an integrated approach of relationship between humans, plants, animals and the earth. The principles of permaculture look into deep understanding of natural ecosystem, traditional agriculture, earth sciences, biology, physics and chemistry. The practice of permaculture looks at mimicking natural ecosystems by linking different parts of this system in a functionally sensible way. Permaculture does not have a particular pattern and the design is very site specific, client specific and culture specific. Therefore the key assessment is the “need and the yield analysis”. It is based on the principle that every element within the system has “need and yield”. In permaculture every element is in relationship with all the other elements present within the system. Examples of elements is tree, animals etc. Every element has at least three functions and every function is supported by at least one element. For example, soil fertility (function) is supported by any or all of the elements – chicken excreta, vermicompost, kitchen waste, cowdung, panchgavya. To illustrate the work of a function and an element in tandem, we take the example of a garden bed. Chickens (element) are used to loosen the soil by scratching the area; they eat the weeds & seeds and fertilize the soil with their excreta. Through this system of sustainable agricultural and lifestyle practice the system becomes very productive, sustainable, self regulatory and has zero or minimal waste. No chemical fertilizer or chemicals are required.

Who will rise

Farmers /Agricultural sector by increasing productivity of agriculture produce and thus increase their livelihood , Due to increase in nutritional value of food will help children, men and women who are underweight or stunted and Helps reduce GHG emissions and thus helps to mitigate Climate change

How This Will Help Them Rise

Our focus is increase the livelihood of farmers, increase food productivity, increase nutritional value of food and reduce GHG emissions

Ecological Benefits

Help in improve agricultural productivity and food security.

Reduce the Green House Gases – GHGs and mitigate Global Warming

EMISSION REDUCING ACTIVITIES IN ORGANIC FARMING

Following are some of the identified activities of Organic Farming, which result into reduction of Emissions, which, otherwise, would have been there due to Conventional Chemical Farming,

  • Emission Reductions due to Electricity Saving in Water Pumping resulting from Reduced Irrigation of Farms

  • Emission Reductions due to Avoidance of Chemical Fertilizers, production of which emits high Green House Gases (GHG)

  • Emission Reductions due to Avoidance of Biomass Residue Burning after Harvesting

  • Emission Reduction due to Efficient & Reduced use of Agri Equipments & Machineries

Social Benefits

Provides better livelihood opportunities for farmers who form large sections if society in rural

Improving social standard of farmers

Brings in increased awareness and environment consciousness and benefits of naturally grown food under Bio Energy technique.

Economical Benefits

Farmers will not have to depend more on fertilizers and help reduce their input cost.
Create employment opportunities in every village.

The community will be made aware of the consequences of chemical farming