Waste Stabilization Pond Systems are summarized and Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (AIWPS) are investigated. Detailed study about each treatment units and reaction mechanisms are studied. Fecal coliform bacteria removal mechanisms, the effect of parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, organic loading, solar radiation on removal efficiency is investigated. Some of AIWPS applications are given, emphasizing removal efficiencies in every unit. Based on operational simplicity, low cost and high removal efficiencies (99% BOD5, suspended solids and coliform bacteria removal), AIWPS is highly recommended for up to 1000 mg/L BOD5 concentration. Because of its high coliform bacteria removal efficiency, the effluent of AIWPS may be used for irrigation purposes.
Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) are regarded as the method of first choice for the treatment of wastewater in many part of the world, because of design, construction and operation simplicity, cost effectiveness, low maintenance and energy requirements, easily adaptive for upgrading and high efficiency.
WSP’s are designed to achieve different forms of treatment in up to three stages in series, depending on the organic strength of the input waste and effluent quality objectives. Usually, classical WSP’s consist of an anaerobic pond, following primary or secondary facultative ponds. If further pathogen reduction is necessary, maturation ponds will be introduced to provide tertiary treatment.
Many techniques have been developed to improve the effluent quality. These are
- Integrated facultative ponds
- Mechanical aeration
- Anaerobic digestion
- Chemical treatment and biological additives
- Schaffer modular Reclamation and reuse system
- Aerated ponds/lagoons
- High-rate algal ponds
- Rock filters
- Maturation ponds and constructed wetlands
- Advanced integrated wastewater pond system.