RURAL Solid & Liquid Waste Management (RSLWM)

 The Proposal consists of ;

  1. Solid and Liquid Waste Management is one of the seven key components of any Sanitation initiatives. Although the TSC guidelines initially focused on human excreta management and eliminating the practice of Open Defecation from rural areas, issues related to Solid Liquid Waste Management, Eco sanitation and Biogas from organic waste are now gaining increased attention.

We are providing training and implementation support for providing eco-friendly & cost effective technology for Solid & Liquid Waste Management in both rural and urban sector using Organic Solution. This can be used for Treatment of Sewage /Domestic Wastewater and Solid Waste.

2. Eco-San is an Environmental friendly method of human waste treatment, disposal and reuse. Ecological sanitation can be viewed as a three-step process dealing with human excreta: containment, sanitization and recycling. The objective is to protect human health and the environment while reducing the use of water in sanitation systems and recycling nutrients to help reduce the need for artificial fertilizers in agriculture. Best suited at places where the water table is high or rocky strata areas.

3. Biogas is the gas produced by biological decomposition of organic / biodegradable material under anaerobic condition. The gas that is produced is mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be used for cooking, heating purposes etc. It is a sustainable renewable technology with kitchen waste being used for generation of biogas.

We are enclosing the detailed report on all the three initiatives along with cost for taking up training and pilot demonstration. It is requested to kindly go through the proposal and provide us an opportunity to take up the training programs and implementation support for pilot demonstration.

Yours faithfully,

Prakash M Kulkarni

Executive Director

Enclosure: As above

Copy to : The Director, SIRD

for kind information

RURAL Solid & Liquid Waste Management (RSLWM)


The need for genuine and organized initiatives in the rural waste management has been regularly voiced in India. With the emerging concern on large quantity of the waste being produced both in the form of solid and liquid waste, the concept of waste management becomes one of the key focus of sustainable development principles which is based on policies, and practices that are resource-conserving, which follow standards that can be met in the long term, and respect values of equity in human access to resources. In definitional terms Rural solid and liquid waste management (RSLWM) is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity.

RSLWM is one of the seven key components of any sanitation initiatives which is rightly emphasized and focused in the currant Government. In programme of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). Although the TSC guidelines initially focused on human excreta management and eliminating the practice of open defecation from rural areas, with introduction of Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) a large number of PRIs have been able to achieve the distinction of eliminating practice of open defecation.

1.1. Waste Problem in Rural Areas in India

In India especially in rural areas, waste is a severe threat to the public health concern and cleanliness. Though, the form of waste (both solid and liquid) generated in rural areas is predominantly organic and biodegradable yet becoming a major problem to the overall sustainability of the ecological balance. For e.g. it is estimated that rural people in India are generating liquid waste (grey water) of the order of 15,000 to 18,000 million liters and solid waste (organic/recyclable) 0.3 to 0.4 million metric tons per day respectively.

1.2 Present Scenario of Rural Solid waste Disposal Practices

In India, the per capita generation of Solid Waste ranges from 300 gms to 600 gms per day depending upon the population and affluence of the city or Town or villages. Waste from Villages near to town also display common characteristics as urban waste with inclusion of agriculture waste.

1.3 Objectives of Waste Management in Rural Areas

To protect human health and improve quality of life among people living in rural areas.

To reduce environment pollution and make rural areas clean.

To promote recycling and reuse of both solid and liquid waste..

To generate employment for rural poor by offering new opportunities in waste management by adopting cost effective and environmentally sound waste water and solid waste treatment technologies.

1.4 Types of waste

Waste is any material/liquid that is thrown away as unwanted. As per physical properties, waste can be categorized as:

A: Solid waste: Any waste other than human excreta, urine & waste water, is called solid waste. Solid waste in rural areas generally includes-house sweeping, kitchen waste, garden waste, cattle dung & waste from cattle sheds, agro waste, broken glass, metal, waste paper, plastic, cloths, rubber, waste from markets & shopping areas, hotels, etc. Solid waste can also be defined as the organic and inorganic waste materials produced by households, commercial & industrial establishments that have no economic value to the owner.

As per biodegradability, solid waste can be classified as:

Biodegradable: Waste that are completely decomposed by biological processes either in presence or in absence of air are called biodegradable. e.g. kitchen waste, animal dung, agricultural waste etc.

Non-biodegradable: Waste which cannot be decomposed by biological processes is called non-biodegradable waste. These are of two types:

Recyclable: waste having economic values but destined for disposal can be recovered and reused along with their energy value. e.g. plastic, paper, old cloth etc.

Non-recyclable: Waste which do not have economic value of recovery e.g. tetra packs, carbon paper, thermo coal etc.

B: Liquid waste-Used & unwanted water is called waste water

Black Water : Waste water generated in the toilet is called “Black water”. It contains harmful pathogens

Grey water : Waste water generated in the kitchen, bathroom and laundry is called “Greywater”. It may also contain pathogens

  1. Objectives
  1. To facilitate better RSLWM practices in a sustainable and cost effective manner, using appropriate technologies.

  2. Integrating the On-going programs at ZP into the overall objectives of RSLWM.

  3. To make villages Open Defecation Free ( ODF) and ensure the usage of facilitate
  4. Assist the GP’s in preparing for NGP award.

  5. Assist GP’s in assessing gap in water (quality and quantity aspects) and sanitation service delivery.

  6. Conduct awareness program especially on Menstrual hygiene.

  7. Develop appropriate IEC strategy for the district, taluka and implementation at GP level

  8. NGO’s to assist ZP/TP/GP in implementation of the above.

2.1. Approach

The waste is generally generated at household level and also at community level e.g. market, common streets etc. In order to properly manage this waste with minimum effort and cost, focus must be on management at the household level. The waste which cannot be managed at the household level and that collected from market place should be handled at the community level. One of the cost effective and decentralized user friendly technologies should be adopted.

The following steps may be followed for introducing community based Waste Management System: Information Collection, Participatory Planning and Preparation of GP/Block level action plan.


Step 1: Information collection: In order to draw up a plan of action for community based RSLWM in an area, it is essential to know the exact number of houses, institutions and commercial establishments to determine the types and amounts of waste generated in the area. The Survey findings through data collection will also serve as documents for introducing the system. For developing the RSLWM plan of the GP/Block, the following information may be collected following rapid rural survey of the community.

No. of Households

Total Population

Details about shops, marriage halls, market, commercial establishments, etc

Community map of the area

Existing system and practice of waste management

Quantum of solid and liquid waste generated per day

Local body’s approach and future plans for SLWM

Details of vacant spaces available in the local body

Details and activities of NGOs & CBOs, e.g. Women Self help Groups etc available in the village.

Step 2: Participatory planning:

The data collected is to be analyzed along with the representatives of the community.

The community should be informed about various technology options for RSLWM both at household as well as community level and accordingly technology options should be decided.

Based on the discussions with the community, RSLWM action plan should be prepared.

Step 3: Preparation of GP/Block level action plan: GP/Block action plan should broadly contain the following:

Social mobilization and awareness generation: It should focus on inter personal communication, focused group discussion, technology demonstration and exposure visits to successful sites.

Technology options: Household and community level technological options with approximate cost estimates to be worked out.

Operation and maintenance: Success of a technology depends upon proper O&M at the household and community level. This aspect should be discussed in detail during planning process and incorporated in the action plan.

2.5 Scope of work and activities

The overall scope of work and activities to be undertaken at the GP/TP/ZP will include mainly:

  1. Conducting training programs for awareness creation on issues of Water, Sanitation and RSLWM to elected representatives, officers (GP,TP& ZP ) and Governance.

  2. Assisting the GP’s in developing action plan for SLWM including menstrual hygiene. Pilot demonstration of Construction/ technical models for waste management ( Eco- sanitation toilet).

  3. Use of OS & Biogas plant from kitchen waste.



In rural areas human waste is the main source of waste posing a big menace and nuisance there by leading to frequent illness. It has been estimated that without major changes, the number of families without access to sanitary excreta management are more than 70% and with current trend of emphasis it is proposed to achieve 50% by the end of 2015

Reports suggest that faecal contamination is the prime cause for diarrhoeal diseases and according to WHO 80% of the diseases are water borne diseases. Every year 5 lakh children die due to diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases. Millions more suffer the nutritional, educational and economic loss through diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases. Human excreta is responsible for transmission of diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, cholera, typhoid, and other infectious diseases affecting millions of children.

Sanitation is a means of keeping the surroundings clean. Well being of the community has been linked to the good practices that prevail in ones life. Despite the fact that India is well placed under Water supply in terms of coverage, it is far lagging behind in terms of sanitation coverage.

Under this sector, Reasons for inadequate coverage can be categorized under the following.

  • Greater emphasis on subsidy

  • Lack of political will

  • Inappropriate approaches/technologies.

  • Technical limitations and problems specific to site

  • Inadequate private initiative

  • Inadequate emphasis on I.E.C

  • Inadequate involvement of women

  • Cultural taboo and beliefs

  • Poor institutional framework

  • Low prestige and recognition

  • Inadequate and poorly used resources

  • Failure to understand the disadvantages

  • Neglect of consumer preferences, etc

An NGO working in the field of Water and Sanitation with a team of technocrats desires to address the problems which can transform our GPs from that of Stinking and indiscriminate waste spread over all along to a stage wherein community will be enlightened to think differently and also to manage them in a system that enhances better aesthetic sense as well less burden on well being of the community.

Eco- sanitation approach

Ecological sanitation can be viewed as a three-step process dealing with human excreta: containment, sanitization and recycling. The objective is to protect human health and the environment while reducing the use of water in sanitation systems and recycling nutrients to help reduce the need for artificial fertilizers in agriculture.

In waterlogged and high water table areas, pit latrines and septic tanks can, and often do, contaminate well water with human faeces. In a crowded village, the wells and latrines would be forced to lie close together. Water contaminated with human faeces puts people at a high risk of cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea, hepatitis, jaundice, typhoid, and intestinal worms. A dry composting toilet protects water and soil from contamination and there by protects the people in the community. Proper technology coupled with an effective hygiene awareness programme can result in significant reductions in the occurrence of diseases. Considering the above facts in such a scenario one emerging option is dry composting of toilet waste known as Eco-Sanitation approach.


This is very much similar to twin pit latrine in rural areas in its outlook. It consists of two vaults of any masonry, above the ground level. Each vault’s volume lasts for 9-12 months depending upon the usage. This new design has the following advantages;


  • Suitable to all type of people and all places

  • Urine gets collected separately

  • Ablution water gets into rechargeable

  • Minimal usage of water for ablution

  • Excreta totally gets converted into manure in a short duration

  • Urine gets collected separately and can be applied to plants thus ensuring high nutritional values

On defecating each time, one is expected to add sawdust / ash, which absorbs moisture content of excreta thus totally avoiding odour menace. Once in 15-20 days dry green leaves may be added to further reduce moisture content and to balance the nitrogen supply. Once the first vault gets filled, second vault will be put into usage. By the time second vault gets filled, excreta in the first vault would have totally converted into compost with no odour to be applied as manure in farm fields.

Central Theme about Ecological Sanitation

The toilet system itself must be thought of, not so much as a disposal system, but as a processing unit.

  • Soil can provide the all-important link between the toilet system and agriculture. In the soil-composting systems, soil is added to the toilet in quantity – approximately equal to the volume of solid excreta added. For best results, the added soil should be combined with wood ash and leaves.

  • The added soil, together with its companion ash and leaves, converts, purifies and otherwise hastens the conversion of the foul and dangerous mass of excreta into humus, which becomes suitable to handle, and is rich in nutrients. The process is entirely biological, with beneficial organisms of all kinds tending to thrive and pathogenic organisms tending to die out.

  • The end result of this natural process is a valuable humus-like soil, which can be used to enhance the growth of both trees and vegetables. Excreta, soil, ash and leaves are abundant and cost nothing. In combination and when processed they have great value.

  • The processing of human excreta (both humus and urine) is best integrated into a broader scheme of recycling all organic products in both home and the garden

Proposal for Construction of Bio gas plant from kitechen waste


Biogas is the gas produced by biological decomposition of organic / biodegradable material under anaerobic condition. The gas that is produced is mainly methane and carbondioxide. Boigas can be used for cooking , heating purposes etc.. It is a sustainable renewable technology.

Biogas plant can be:

Conventional plant using cowdung.

Kitchen waste based biogas plant.

Typical composition of Biogas







Carbon dioxide









Hydrogen sulfide






Conventional biogas plant uses cow dung and some amount of agricultural waste mass mainly as its feed.

Kitchen waste based biogas plant is fed with the food waste from the kitchen and has comparatively higher calorific value in comparison to conventional methods. The compact biogas plant is fabricated using pvc tanks and locally available plumbing material. it uses 2 kg of starchy or sugary feedstock per day and can produce about 500g of methane and the reaction is completed in 24 hrs.

Feed required for kitchen waste based biogas plant.

The feed can be waste flour, vegetable residue, waste food, fruit peelings and rotten fruit. Feed stock with larger lumps (more than 20mm) needs to be broken down for faster degradation and reaction. Most of kitchen waste, including left over food, can be used for decomposing.


  • Food items which are acidic in nature like lemon, pickles etc should not be added as it increases the acidic levels in the biogas plant.

  • Ideal temperature to be maintained in the kitchen waste based biogas plant.

  • Atta or flour required for one month for 1m3 plant is around 60kg.

Typical composition of kitchen waste based biogass plant

65% methane

20- 30% Carbon dioxide

5% Hydrogen sulphate and Water vapor.

Variation of quantity of Bio gas with quantity of Raw Material (Bio-degradable waste)

The output (quantity of Bio gas) depends on Quantity and Quality of input (Bio-degradable waste)”

  • Under Ideal conditions, an input of 100 to 110 Kg/day of wet biodegradable waste yields 8 m³/day of biogas and 10 Kg/day of manure

  • If the quality of the raw material is good then the quality of the output would be better. For maximum input of waste as per designed capacity output will be maximum.

  • If the plant runs under the designed capacity for less than 50 percent of the input of raw material, then the output reduces in accordance with input.

  • A 10 kg plant can run at minimum of 25Kg/day to maximum 100 to 110 Kg/day of raw material.


Based on the capacity of the plant/waste input, the plants can be classified in to two types

  1. Small scale [PVC drum based] plants: Plants whose capacity ranges from 1m³ (2Kg Waste input) to 3m³ (06 Kg to 10 Kg Waste input).

  2. Large scale [Masonry Structure] plants: Plants whose capacity ranges from 25 Kg/day, Waste input to 100 Kg/day, 200 Kg/day, up to 2000 kg/day Waste input.


Sl. No

Volume of the plant(m3)

Biogas storage capacity


LPG equivalent of biogas produced per day(Kg)


1 (2 Kg waste input)




2 (4 to 8kg waste input)




1. 1m³ =1000L

2. 1 m³ of Biogas is equivalent to 0.43Kg of LPG

3. Cost 1Kg of LPG =Rs.25/- (for Domestic Purpose)

4. Cost 1Kg of LPG =Rs.64/- (for Commercial Purpose) – considered for calculation




Waste input (Kg )

Biogas Generated(m3)

LPG equivalent of biogas produced per day(Kg)






80- 120



100 Kg of wet biodegradable waste yields 8m³ (approx.) of gas and 10 Kg of dry manure. Thus, the quantity of the waste is reduced by 90 percent.


  • Initially cow dung of 200 kg is required as seeding to start a plant of 1m3.

  • Atta or flour required for one month for 1m3 plant is 60kg.

  • Area open to sunlight through the day 3m * 3m

  • Food waste of 2 to 4 kg per day

The plant takes around 45 days after commissioning to generate biogas


  • It is a renewable energy resource; saving the fossil fuel.LPG which is already in shortage can be saved wherever possible.

  • The slurry coming out of the biogas unit can serve as a good fertilizer which can be used in agriculture.

  • It is compact in size.

  • Disposal of waste at source.

  • Maintainance cost is low.


Conducting two days ( 30 Participants) training programmes on Rural Solid and Liquid Waste Management (RSLWM) training programmes at Taluk level. The cost breakup for conducting these training programme and pilot construction eco-toilet and biogas plant and also application of Organic Solution ( Both solid and liquid waste) is works out to Rs 1,04,420.00

Rural Solid and Liquid Waste Management -2 days Training Programme at District / Taluk / GP level

Cost Break up

Sl. No




No. of days

Cost /day

Total Amount


Training Component



2 Days

2 Days








Conducting 2days workshop on Rural Solid & liquid Waste Management Trainings at District/ Taluk / GP level


  1. Resource persons honorarium


  1. Assts. for OS Demonstration


  1. TA/DA to Resource persons & Assistants


Training Kit to Participants


300 each



Lunch and Tea/Coffee for 2 days


2 Days

150 / Day



Multimedia, Documentation & Reporting cost






Pilot Demonstration cost


Using Organic Solution to both solid and liquid waste –Demonstration at the site including material, micronutrients and jaggery cost




Construction of one pilot eco- san toilet

(Including Material, Mason and Labour cost)




Construction of one pilot Bio-Gas plant

(Including Material, Mason and Labour cost)






Institutional over head cost at 15%


Grand total



Rural Solid and Liquid Waste Management -2 days Training Programme at Taluk level

Cost Break up

Sl. No


Total Participants

Unit Cost

Total Amount


Training Component


Boarding and Lodging Charges for 2days





Hanorarium to Resource persons at 6 Sessions per day-12 sessions @ Rs 400/-




T.A to resource persons




Training hall charges for 2days ( Including LCD,PC etc)




Training Kit (Pad+Pen+bag)





Remuneration for the Training Co-ordinator




Documentation, Photo, Reporting, Unforeseen Expenditure etc.






Institutional over head at 15%


Sub-Total -A



Pilot Demonstration cost


Using Organic Solution to both solid and liquid waste –Demonstration at the site including material, micronutrients and jaggery cost




Construction of one pilot eco- san toilet

(Including Material, Mason and Labour cost)




Construction of one pilot Bio-Gas plant

(Including Material, and Labour cost)






Institutional over head at 15%


Sub- Total -B


Grand Total ( A+B)



Rs. 1,07,000.00





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