SMART SANITATION AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A HOLISTIC APPROACH

Social Business Plan

Project Name: SMART SANITATION AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A HOLISTIC APPROACH

 

 

 

SMART SANITATION AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A HOLISTIC APPROACH It’s a social venture involving technology deployment in sanitation and Solid Waste in village, towns and cities through smart holistic solution at every household

Background

In many slums, peri-urban, rural areas of India people live without basic services such as water, sanitation, solid waste management (SWM) and this leads to people live and raise their children in highly polluted environments and is one of the most visible and neglected problem in this area of sanitation and SWM. Urban especially the slums, peri-urban and rural areas in India are highly polluted and poses severe environmental problem. There is high infant mortality due to prevalence of many diseases. Unhygienic conditions are caused by a lack of toilets and inadequate sanitation services.

Current Scenario

According to Eighth Five Year Plan, only between 18 to 19 per cent of all rural households have a toilet. In rural areas, the scale of the problem is particularly daunting, as 74% of the rural population still defecates in the open. The sanitation landscape in India is still littered with 3 million unsanitary bucket latrines, which require scavengers to conduct house-to-house excreta collection. Example in, Mumbai city alone generates an astounding 8000 tonnes of waste every single day. For India, the figure is beyond 100,000 tonnes daily. No Indian policy document examines liquid waste and human waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery, or perceives liquid waste and human waste, SWM through a prism of overall sustainability. Liquid Waste and human waste management is still a non-cyclic system of collection and disposal in open spaces which leads to considerable health and environmental hazards.

Market opportunity and strategy

The responsibility of handling the waste lies with the Urban Local body and Panchayat where in Crores is spent annually for collection and transportation of waste. In spite of huge expenditures, only 10-15 % of waste is handled leaving 90% of the sector unorganized. Many of the initiatives taken by external bodies, both private and NGOs have received support from few Municipal Corporations, as it reduces their burden and the pressure of handling waste. Some Municipal corporations are also looking to outsource the operations to outside entities.

The economic potential of the waste management sector has gone unnoticed. The biodegradable waste which forms about (30-40) % of the municipal waste can be utilized to generate biogas and organic manure. Biogas has market in hotels/canteens/restaurant whereas organic manure is in demand for organic farming. The recycling industries would be active and potential customers for the dry waste, if handled properly.

Our strategy and Solutions:

Our vision for liquid waste, human excreta and Solid Waste handling is based on the basic rules of sustainable waste-management.
Be Responsible, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

MODEL

Types of substances each household 
Each of these substances are collected separately and each is treated as resource

1. Faeces– consist of organic matter, nutrients such as N, P, K. The faeces are diverted to biogas plant for the hygienically safe treatment off faecal matter and recovery of biogas. This biogas is used for cooking purposes and will act as a substitute to LPG in cooking and reduce the burden of rural household on expenditure on cooking gas.

2. Urine– Contains high proportion of nutrients such as N, P, K and is helpful for the growth of plants. Collection of urine (including anal cleansing water) and this is diverted to agricultural fields. The urine will be applied as a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer to crop plantations. This will act as substitute for fertilizers. This in turn reduces the burden of fertilizers for rural farmers and will help improve soil quality and also reduce the Green House Gas Emission for the chemical farms and thus help mitigate global warming. This also helps improve crop productivity and increase food supply and thus leads to food security.


3. Grey Water– This is liquid waste from hand washing, bathing, cloths, utensils washing and other household activities which generate liquid waste water. This is largest component of liquid waste and contains no nutrients. It may also contain detergents etc. A small pond is created in every house and the grey water is diverted here. This pond will have fishes which will eat the organic matter, ducks which will purify the water. A seed called “ Tekkertokai ( in Tamil) is used to treat the detergents and other chemicals. This seed has the great capacity to purify liquid waste water and is tested by Health Department in Municipality, Chennai. This in NANO TECHNOLOGY and research is in progress to find the details of this seed.

4. Rain Water– Many times, due to lack of sanitation facilities, the rain water/storm water mix with the drainage water and get polluted.  By separating the rain water and harvesting this rain water by filtration we can be able to use this water drinking purposes and for recharge the ground water etc.

5. Solid Waste– We encourage segregation of waste at source and provide a holistic waste-management solution involving various stake holders in the form of Citizen Groups/communities Government Agencies, NGOs working in the field of waste management and also waste-pickers. The process of reusing and recycling will be able to curtail the strain on virgin materials and stop the accumulation of used materials. The concept of the so called ‘WASTE’ and ‘DUMPING GROUND’ is hereby challenged. We believe waste is one of the elements in the ecological cycle where dumping grounds should not block the chain. The NGOs/waste-picker associations would be involved in providing employment and a better working condition to waste-pickers/ needy population.

Generating Electricity from URINE

it is already proved that power can be generated from urine! According to the researchers, urine-powered batteries would be one of the cheapest, disposable, and renewable sources of energy .Urine-activated laminated paper batteries can be produced. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW.

Generating Electricity from Bio Gas and Technical Feasibility

The heart of our Waste handling unit is the Biogas Plant and the Secondary Waste handling Unit. The BIOGAS plant is developed by BARC scientist Dr.Sharad Kale. Currently, there are almost 120 working model of this plant in different parts of India.

Model 1: Setting up Integrated Liquid and Solid Waste Management in College Campuses, Townships, and other privately owned colonies where investment is made by the local bodies.

Model 2: Setting up Integrated Liquid and Solid Waste Management in entire village where there is no facilities for toilets and SWM

Model 3: Set up Smaller Waste handling units in College Campuses, Townships, and other privately owned colonies where investment is jointly made by the local bodies and us

Financial Viability and Social Impact

Each decentralized unit of 2 MT capacity of SWM plant would need an investment of around Rs. 15 lakh considering the subsidy available. Each Toilet Block of 50 seats will require an investment of Rs 15,000 -17,000/-. This cost can be reduced if we optimize the construction material which can be used locally in a village. Therefore cost could reduce to Rs 10,000/-

With breakeven period of less than 2 years, the funding for investment can be sourced from various pro-green-initiative funding agencies. Carbon credits can additionally supplement investments at a later stage to support expansion. From the environmental and social perspective, as pointed out earlier, a decentralized unit reduces vehicular emissions; appropriate handling reduces the need and harmful effect of dumping ground; generates additional greener energy; restores live soil; reduces strain on the resource availability and also generates employment opportunities for the needy.

Market and the potential

Every Rural citizen will benefit including the Farmers (Agricultural sector), Society at large and Environment are the primary beneficiaries of this solution.

Our focus is on building Socially, Ecologically and Economically Sustainable Decentralized Waste Handling Units targeted for households and other commercial establishments in every village, city and towms.

For example in Mumbai city alone generates 8000MT waste, there is a theoretical potential for 1600 decentralized units. With revenues from each unit about Rs.25 lakh per unit per year, the entire sector can be estimated to be worth nearly Rs.400 crores per year in Mumbai alone. The idea of putting up decentralized waste handling units and giving a holistic solution of both dry, wet waste and liquid waste is unique. We see a great market potential in other cities, towns and villages in India.

The Value Addition

Ecological Benefits

1. Reduction of vehicular CO2 emissions, as decentralized units reduces everyday transportation of waste to dumping ground.
2. Reuse the faeces, urine, grey water and rain water and help reduce environment damage.
3. Help in improve agricultural productivity and food security.
4. Reduce the Green House Gases – GHGs and mitigate Global Warming

5. Use of Methane as cooking gas and saving LPG- If used thermally it has the potential to reduce the usage of LPG/other natural fuels

6. Reduction of environmentally harmful Urea as manure will be the replacement.

Social Benefits

Help bring in reduction in infant mortality rate
2. Better hygiene in villages.
3. Provides employment to large number of economically weaker sections or unskilled laborers in rural with better and hygienic working conditions.
4. Brings in increased awareness and environment consciousness in the society.

Economical Benefits

1. The commercial value of biogas, organic manure and dry waste, liquid waste at each unit which will make the units not only self sustained but also profitable.
2. Farmers will not have to depend more on fertilizers and help reduce their input cost.
3. Create employment opportunities in eve

Public Health and Life Quality

  1. Waste will be handled in a hygienic and scientific manner, so no pollution is caused at any stage
  2. Garbage on the roads is tremendously reduced
  3. Drains are no longer clogged with garbage – no smell, no breeding site for malaria spreading mosquitoes, no meeting place for pigs and other stray animals
  4. Quality of life improves as the whole city looks clean and aesthetic.

Theory of Change

If waste is handled properly then emission of greenhouse gases at dumping grounds will decrease and help mitigate climate change ( however small it may be)

It will reduce the transportation cost of waste and CO2 emissions due to it.

If materials are reused and recycled then the emissions due to the processing of virgin resources will reduce.

If the liquid waste is treated and used properly will lead to better resource management. This in turn will decrease unhygienic conditions and will reduce spread of diseases

If bio fuels are used, it will supplement the demand for domestic fuel and reduce the strain on fossil fuels.

If organic manure is used it will supplement the demand in fertilizer industry and improve the soil condition as well as the quality of crops.

Involving waste pickers in the system will result their improved economic and health conditions.

Handling the waste properly will also result in realization of its commercial value. If rain water is harvested will lead to less stress on water sources

 

Designs and Models of Toilets

 

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