SMART SANITATION AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

SMART SANITATION AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

CONTENTS

  • Background

  • Current Scenario

  • The Opportunity

  • Current Players

  • Our Approach, Collaboration and Solution

  • Technical feasibility

  • The Value Proposition

  • Financial Viability and Environmental Impact

  • Social Impact Assessment

  • Market and its Potential

  • Operational Model

  • Organizational roadmap

  • The Team

  • Pilot Launch

Background

In many rural areas of India people live without basic services such as water, sanitation , solid waste management and this leads to people live and raise their children in highly polluted environments. With sufficient spending ability, the standard of living in an urban setup has changed dramatically in various spheres like transportation, infrastructure, communication, entertainment and also in consumption of goods for comfort. But the question, whether this growth is sustainable has started to arise. Strain on available natural resources has been tremendously increasing. One of the most visible and neglected problem in this area of sanitation. Urban especially the slums , peri-urban and rural areas in India are highly polluted and poses severe environmental problem. There is high infant mortality due to prevelance of many diseases, malnutrition is caused by a lack of toilets and inadequate sanitation services

Current Scenario

According to Eighth Five Year Plan, only between 18 to 19

per cent of all rural households have a toilet. In rural areas, the scale of the problem is particularly daunting, as 74% of the rural population

still defecates in the open. The sanitation landscape in India is still littered with

3 million unsanitary bucket latrines, which require scavengers to conduct house-to-house

excreta collection

Example –In Karnataka State as an example, this only has 5.40 million rural households do not have toilets.

No Indian policy document examines liquid waste and human waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery, or perceives liquid waste and human waste through a prism of overall sustainability. Liquid Waste and human waste management is still a non-cyclic system of collection and disposal in open spaces which leads to considerable health and environmental hazards.

The Opportunity

Since as we can see from the Statistics the huge potential of providing Safe Sanitation and SWM in all villages in India. Many of the initiatives taken by external bodies, both private and NGOs have received support from few Municipal Corporations, as it reduces their burden and the pressure of handling waste. Some Municipal corporations are also looking to outsource the operations to outside entities.

The economic potential of the waste management sector has gone unnoticed. The biodegradable waste which forms about (30-40) % of the municipal waste can be utilized to generate biogas and organic manure. Biogas has market in hotels/canteens/restaurant whereas organic manure is in demand for organic farming. The recycling industries would be active and potential customers for the dry waste, if handled properly.

VISION

Our vision for liquid waste , human excreta and Solid Waste handling is based on the basic rules of sustainable waste-management.

Be Responsible, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

Objectives

  • Recycling of nutrients and organics

due to the collection, treatment and

reuse of urine and faeces for the production of fertilizer and compost

  • Improving the living conditions in the

rural areas, minimizing the risk of disease

spreading during monsoon flood periods and increasing women’s security.

  • Promotion of safe recovery and use of nutrients, organics, trace elements, water and energy

  • Preservation of soil fertility and improvment of agricultural productivity

  • Conservation of resources in holistic manner and restoring the natural cycles.

  • Changing attitudes of people in the rural areas and making them aware of benefts of proper sanitation system and creating positive attitude so as to bring postive changes in social and cultural acceptance towards smart sanitation.

Project Scale:

one public toilet centre in a village, 500 – 600 users per day

Components

  1. Health

  2. Sustainable agriculture and conserve soil fertility

  3. Food security

  4. Integrated water management

  5. Resource conservation

  6. Climate protection

  7. Employment generation activity.

Types of substances each household

Each of these substances are collected separately and each is treated as resource

1. Faeces- consists of organic matter, nutrients such as N, P, K

The faeces are diverted to biogas plant for

the hygienically safe treatment off faecal

matter and recovery of biogas. This biogas is used for cooking purposes and will act as a substitute to LPG in cooking and reduce the burden of rural household on expenditure on cooking gas.

2. Urine

Contains high proportion of nutrients such as N, P, K and is helpful for the growth of plants

Collection of urine (including

anal cleansing water) and this is diverted to agricultural fields. The urine will be applied as

a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer to crop

plantations. This will act as substitute for fertilizers. This in turn reduces the burden of fertilizers for rural farmers and will help improve soil quality and also reduce the Green House Gas Emission for the chemical farms and thus help mitigate global warming. This also help improve crop productivity and increase food supply and thus leads to food security.

3. Grey Water- This is liquid waste from hand washing, bathing, cloths, utensils washing and other household activities which generate liquid waste water.

This is largest component of liquid waste and contains no nutrients. It may also contain detergents etc.

A small pond is created in every house and the grey water is diverted here. This pond will have fishes which will eat the organic matter, ducks which will purify the water. A seed called “ Tekkertokai ( in Tamil) is used to treat the detergents and other chemicals. This seed has the great capacity to purify liquid waste water and is tested by Health Department in Municipality, Chennai.

Then pond water can be used for gardening and other non-drinking purposes and also can be used to recharge the ground water.

4. Rain Water- Many a times, due to lack of sanitation facilities, the rain water/storm water mixes with the drainage water and get polluted.

By seperating the rain water and harvesting this rain water by filteration we can be able to use this water drinking purposes and for recharge the ground water etc.

5. Organic Waste– We encourage segregation of waste at source and provide a holistic waste-management solution involving various stake holders in the form of Citizen Groups/communities, Municipal Corporations, NGOs working in the field of waste management and also waste-pickers.The process of reusing and recycling will be able to curtail the strain on virgin materials and stop the accumulation of used materials. The concept of the so called ‘WASTE’ and ‘DUMPING GROUND’ is hereby challenged. We believe waste is one of the elements in the ecological cycle where dumping grounds should not block the chain. The NGOs/waste-picker associations would be involved in providing employment and a better working condition to waste-pickers/ needy population.

Another , issues is the usage of Polythene bags. As we all know that polythene bags are one of the biggest environmental hazard and cause llot of issues. The material & process used for making these bags causes heavy pollution and we intend to replace this. The project is going to involve Biodegradable covers which are environmentally friendly.

Our focus is on building Socially, Ecologically and Economically Sustainable Decentralized Waste Handling Units targeted for households and other commercial establishments in a locality.

The Value Proposition

The following are directly visible benefits of a waste handling unit

Ecological

  • Reduction of vehicular CO2 emissions, as decentralized units reduces everyday transportation of waste to dumping ground.

  • Reuse the faeces, urine , grey water and rain water and help reduce environment damage.

  • Help in improve agricultural productivity and food security.

  • Reduce the Green House Gases – GHGs and mitigate Global Warming

Social

  • Provides employment to large number of economically weaker sections or unskilled labourers in rural with better and hygienic working conditions.

  • Brings in increased awareness and environment consciousness in the society.

Economical

  • The commercial value of biogas, organic manure and dry waste at each unit which will make the units not only self sustained but also profitable.

  • Farmers will not have to depend more on fertilizers and help reduce their input cost.

  • Create employment opportunities in every village.

Background

In many rural areas of India people live without basic services such as water, sanitation , solid waste management and this leads to people live and raise their children in highly polluted environments. With sufficient spending ability, the standard of living in an urban setup has changed dramatically in various spheres like transportation, infrastructure, communication, entertainment and also in consumption of goods for comfort. But the question, whether this growth is sustainable has started to arise. Strain on available natural resources has been tremendously increasing. One of the most visible and neglected problem in this area of sanitation. Urban especially the slums , peri-urban and rural areas in India are highly polluted and poses severe environmental problem. There is high infant mortality due to prevalence of many diseases, malnutrition is caused by a lack of toilets and inadequate sanitation services

Current Scenario

According to Eighth Five Year Plan, only between 18 to 19 per cent of all rural households have a toilet. In rural areas, the scale of the problem is particularly daunting, as 74% of the rural population still defecates in the open. The sanitation landscape in India is still littered with 3 million unsanitary bucket latrines, which require scavengers to conduct house-to-house excreta collection

Example -In Karnataka State as an example, this only has 5.40 million rural households do not have toilets.

No Indian policy document examines liquid waste and human waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery, or perceives liquid waste and human waste through a prism of overall sustainability. Liquid Waste and human waste management is still a non-cyclic system of collection and disposal in open spaces which leads to considerable health and environmental hazards.

The Opportunity

Since as we can see from the Statistics the huge potential of providing Safe Sanitation and SWM in all villages in India. Many of the initiatives taken by external bodies, both private and NGOs have received support from few Municipal Corporations, as it reduces their burden and the pressure of handling waste. Some Municipal corporations are also looking to outsource the operations to outside entities.

The economic potential of the waste management sector has gone unnoticed. The biodegradable waste which forms about (30-40) % of the municipal waste can be utilized to generate biogas and organic manure. Biogas has market in hotels/canteens/restaurant whereas organic manure is in demand for organic farming. The recycling industries would be active and potential customers for the dry waste, if handled properly.

VISION

Our vision for liquid waste , human excreta and Solid Waste handling is based on the basic rules of sustainable waste-management.

Be Responsible, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

Objectives

Recycling of nutrients and organics due to the collection, treatment and reuse of urine and faeces for the production of fertilizer and compost Improving the living conditions in the rural areas, minimizing the risk of disease spreading during monsoon flood periods and increasing women’s security. Promotion of safe recovery and use of nutrients, organics, trace elements, water and energy

Preservation of soil fertility and improvement of agricultural productivity Conservation of resources in holistic manner and restoring the natural cycles.

Changing attitudes of people in the rural areas and making them aware of benefits of proper sanitation system and creating positive attitude so as to bring positive changes in social and cultural acceptance towards smart sanitation.

Project Scale:

one public toilet center in a village, 500 – 600 users per day and Integrated SWM model for entire village

Components

1.Health

2.Sustainable agriculture and conserve soil fertility

3.Food security

4.Integrated water management

5.Resource conservation

6.Climate protection

7.Employment generation activity.

Types of substances each household

Each of these substances are collected separately and each is treated as resource

1. Faeces- consists of organic matter, nutrients such as N, P, K

The faeces are diverted to biogas plant for the hygienically safe treatment off faecal matter and recovery of biogas. This biogas is used for cooking purposes and will act as a substitute to LPG in cooking and reduce the burden of rural household on expenditure on cooking gas.

2. Urine

Contains high proportion of nutrients such as N, P, K and is helpful for the growth of plants Collection of urine (including anal cleansing water) and this is diverted to agricultural fields. The urine will be applied as a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer to crop plantations. This will act as substitute for fertilizers. This in turn reduces the burden of fertilizers for rural farmers and will help improve soil quality and also reduce the Green House Gas Emission for the chemical farms and thus help mitigate global warming. This also help improve crop productivity and increase food supply and thus leads to food security.

3. Grey Water-

This is liquid waste from hand washing, bathing, cloths, utensils washing and other household activities which generate liquid waste water.

This is largest component of liquid waste and contains no nutrients. It may also contain detergents etc.

A small pond is created in every house and the Grey water is diverted here. This pond will have fishes which will eat the organic matter, ducks which will purify the water. A seed called “ Tekkertokai ( in Tamil) is used to treat the detergents and other chemicals. This seed has the great capacity to purify liquid waste water and is tested by Health Department in Municipality, Chennai.

Then pond water can be used for gardening and other non-drinking purposes and also can be used to recharge the ground water.

4. Rain Water-

Many a times, due to lack of sanitation facilities, the rain water/storm water mixes with the drainage water and get polluted. By separating the rain water and harvesting this rain water by filtration we can be able to use this water drinking purposes and for recharge the ground water etc.

5. Organic Waste- We encourage segregation of waste at source and provide a holistic waste-management solution involving various stake holders in the form of Citizen Groups/communities, Municipal Corporations, NGOs working in the field of waste management and also waste-pickers.The process of reusing and recycling will be able to curtail the strain on virgin materials and stop the accumulation of used materials. The concept of the so called ‘WASTE’ and ‘DUMPING GROUND’ is hereby challenged. We believe waste is one of the elements in the ecological cycle where dumping grounds should not block the chain. The NGOs/waste-picker associations would be involved in providing employment and a better working condition to waste-pickers/ needy population.

Another , issues is the usage of Polythene bags. As we all know that polythene bags are one of the biggest environmental hazard and cause llot of issues. The material & process used for making these bags causes heavy pollution and we intend to replace this. The project is going to involve Biodegradable covers which are environmentally friendly.

A.Daily door-to-door garbage collection

B.Waste segregation

C.Garbage lifting and Transportation

D.Employment Generation

E.Awareness Building

A.Daily door-to-door garbage collection

Daily door-to-door garbage collection is the core of this model. It is most essential for complying with the norms prescribed by the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, as well as the Supreme Court Guidelines for Solid Waste Management.

Our Approach:

Rag Pickers and private sweepers who work in same sector and spend life at foul-smelling and most unhygienic places rummaging through debris with bare hands and getting an uncertain and irregular low payment for this work will be brought into organised sector ,

Training:

They will undergo a special training that equips them with the abilities necessary job:

Handling the waste in a proper and hygienic manner

Polite and helpful behavior towards local residents

Discipline, sincerity commitment to their work

The properly trained personnel will collect the waste from households and shops seven days a week and 365 days a year. This service will provided in the morning time (between 6.00 to 1.00 pm). They would be provided with colourful work clothes (uniforms) so that the residents and shopkeepers can easily identify them. Training and new public appearance helps the worker to be better accepted by community.

The garbage will be directly transported and unloaded to local containers ( transfer stations) using specially designed vehicles. Those containers will be brought to Bio Gas sites

Proposed Equipment:

Personnel can collect the garbage with specially designed mechanical tricyle rickshaws and multi bucket wheelbarrows. They have several advantages:

Workers can access even very narrow roads (for example in Slum areas)

Segregated waste collection

The waste can be directly unloaded in the container. It does not have to be touched. So, hygienic conditions for workers are improved.

Primary Collection Equipment

A. 6 Container Tricycle Rickshaws: 6-container tricycle rickshaw for primary collection of waste. The major advantages of this type of equipment is that it allows collection of waste in segregated form and prevents multiple handling as the waste can be directly unloaded to the secondary collection vehicle. Its cost is a little more than the open body tricycle rickshaw and can carry 75 kgs of waste in one trip.

B. Closed Body Container with 2 compartments: Closed Body Container with 2 Compartments, which aids in segregated collection of waste, and since it’s a closed body type the waste is not exposed to the atmosphere and therefore has aesthetic appearance. This type of equipment can carry 150 Kgs of waste.

The only limitation with this equipment is that since the waste cannot be unloaded to the secondary collection vehicle, it leads to multiple handling.

Closed Tipping Bodies with 2 containers: Includes hydraulic lifting of the rear side of the rickshaw unto the height of secondary collection vehicle so that the waste can be directly disposed off. This type of equipment is most expensive and requires more maintenance as compared to the earlier ones.

Mechanised Auto Rickshaws with closed container body with compartments: The benefits of this type of equipment include high coverage area and can handle more waste. Further, since it has a closed container body, it is aesthetic in appearance and can directly unload the waste to final disposal point. This type of equipment is most optimum for smaller cities and towns as the overall economics is favourable as compared to manually driven rickshaws. The only demerit with this equipment as compared to the earlier models is that the initial capital cost is higher.

Mechanised operations with Medium Utility Vehicles: The advantage of this type of system is that it can handle more waste than auto rickshaws and is most ideal for bin-free cities. The demerit is that it is more expensive.

Door-to-Door Garbage Collection – The Monitoring System

Supervisors and Zonal In-charges inspect the field everyday. They would regularly get in touch with households and shops to check for feedback, complaints and suggestions so that a satisfying service can be maintained.

Youth ExNoRa would have a customer care service, telephone number would be made available from 6.00 am till 8.00 pm. In most cases complaints would be readdressed within 30 – 60 minutes during working hours, or the next morning if problems arise outside working hours.

B.Waste Segregation

Waste is not all the same. It has different characteristics according to which it can be divided accordingly:

Recyclable e.g. glass, paper, plastic

Organic e.g. food leftovers, garden waste

Toxic e.g. tin, batteries

Reusable e.g. plastic bottles, polythene bags

While recyclable waste is dry in nature, the organic kind is wet and 100% biodegradable.

Hence, bacterial action is faster in the latter. If waste is segregated, it is easier to handle, does not cause much pollution and can be reused, recycled or decomposed.

Youth ExNoRa implement following approach:

Educating the community about waste characteristics and the consequences of inappropriate waste dumping

Collecting the waste in a segregated manner every day

Using specially designed multi-chambered rickshaws for garbage collection

C.Garbage Lifting and Transportation

Lifting the local containers and transporting them to landfill sites. Containers has to be lifted before they overflow and waste is not stored longer than necessary in residential areas. Furthermore, superfluous containers can be removed for better public convenience.

D.Employment Generation

As Youth ExNoRa is not a profit-oriented organization, it is committed to improve quality of life, especially for the deprived section of the society.

E.Awareness Building

It is Youth ExNoRa’s conviction that the cleanliness of city is a collective good. It can only be achieved with the participation of all concerned. Therefore, Youth ExNoRa will encourages and motivates people to keep their surroundings clean. They will be provided education regarding sanitation and garbage disposal through various means of communication such as:

Posters, folders, booklets, leaflets

Exhibitions

Wall paintings

Living society meetings

Debates and painting competitions in schools

Regular talks with citizens

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