About Prelims

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is one of the many constitutional body in India. It is authorized to conduct competitive examinations and interviews for recruitment of civil services, defence services  and posts under the Union Government or Central Government.

Civil Services

Indian Civil Service serves as the backbone of Indian administrative machinery. Career in civil services offers prestigious opportunities and responsibilities. India’s best minds strive for entry into the All India Civil Services as IAS (Indian Administrative Service), IFS (Indian Forest Service) and IPS (Indian Police Service) officers.

CSAT (Prelims) Pattern

The Preliminary Examination consists of two papers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carry maximum of 400 marks. This exam is only a screening test; the marks obtained in the prelims are only for qualifying for main exam and are not counted for determining final order of merit.

Prelims Paper Duration Questions Marks
Paper I – General Studies 2 Hours 100 200
Paper II – Aptitude 2 Hours 80 200
Total     400


In General Studies Paper – II, minimum qualifying marks is 33%. You will be selected for Mains exam based total qualifying marks of General Studies Paper – I.

CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude Test) has two papers:

  1. General Studies
  2. General Ability Test

CSAT General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus

CSAT Paper I: 200 Marks; Duration: Two Hours; Number of Questions: 100

  1. Current Affairs: Events of national and international importance
  2. History of India and Indian National Movement
  3. Indian and World Geography: Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  4. Indian Polity and Governance: Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  5. Economic and Social Development: Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  6. General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change (no subject specialization required)
  7. General Science

CSAT Paper-1 Analysis

Topic 2011 2012 2013 2014
History and Culture 13 20 15 21
Economy 18 12 18 6
Polity 17 25 18 13
Geography 11 11 14 15
Environment & Bio-diversity 22 23 22 21
Science & Technology 19 9 13 17
Current Affairs 7
Total 100 100 100 100

CSAT General Ability Test Paper 2 Syllabus

CSAT Paper II: 200 Marks; Duration: Two Hours; Number of Questions: 80

  1. Comprehension
  2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  4. Decision making and problem solving
  5. General mental ability
  6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level)
  7. Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)
  8. English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level)

Marking Scheme: Total 80 questions have 200 marks, thus each question is of 2.5 marks. There is a negative marking of 33% or 0.83 marks. Decision making section doesn’t have any negative marking.



It is estimated that 40 per cent of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater, whereas the remaining part is pumped from the Cauvery river through a distance of 95 kilometres and a head of 1000 metres.

Bangalore receives 970 mm rainfall annually and the number of rainy days is 59.8. Highest amount of rainfall is received during April to November, while the rest of the months receive scanty rainfall. Peak runoff is 50 millimeters per hour. Due to the availability of rainwater throughout the year, water is basically stored in these rainwater harvesting systems and used for non-potable purposes. Water from the rooftops is led into storage structures. First flushing is normally done by providing an extra length of pipe to collect the polluted 2.5 mm of rainfall. Filters are made of sponge and a mixture of sand, gravel and charcoal. After first flushing and filtration water is led into under ground sumps (which are very common in Bangalore) or to a new storage tank.

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The overflow from this tank is taken to an open well to recharge the aquifer.The geological formations are predominantly granite and granitic gneiss, with joints and fractures in abundance due to intense chemical weathering of rocks. The depth of weathering varies from 0.2 m to 20 m. This geological set-up offers an immense scope for recharging of ground aquifers.

The undulating terrain with gentle slopes draining into lakes offer an ideal situation for water harvesting. In the urban area of Bangalore waterbodies cover about 5 per cent of land.

Potential of rainwater harvesting

Name of City
Proposed area for 2011(category and area in Sq km)
Annual water harvesting potential in billion litres
100 per cent harvesting
50 per cent harvesting
Bangalore Development area 597.0 579.10 289.55
Green Belt 682.0 661.54 330.77
Total area 1279 1240.64 620.32

Notes: Average annual Rainfall = In mm 970; Annual demand-supply gap 49.28 billion litres
Case studies:

The project:
The industrial unit of a 20 hectare

Breakup of the area:
Rooftop area: 29,961 Sq. m
Paved area : 43,095.66 Sq.m
Unpaved area : 129,286.98 Sq.m
The total rainwater harvesting potential of the site is 185 million litres.

A pilot project was set up in May 2000 covering about 1, 280 sq.m of roof area for the administrative block and the canteen building. With storage capacity of 42,00 litres, the unit collects about 1.05 million litres per year. The system is expected to pay back for itself in five years.