About Prelims

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is one of the many constitutional body in India. It is authorized to conduct competitive examinations and interviews for recruitment of civil services, defence services  and posts under the Union Government or Central Government.

Civil Services

Indian Civil Service serves as the backbone of Indian administrative machinery. Career in civil services offers prestigious opportunities and responsibilities. India’s best minds strive for entry into the All India Civil Services as IAS (Indian Administrative Service), IFS (Indian Forest Service) and IPS (Indian Police Service) officers.

CSAT (Prelims) Pattern

The Preliminary Examination consists of two papers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carry maximum of 400 marks. This exam is only a screening test; the marks obtained in the prelims are only for qualifying for main exam and are not counted for determining final order of merit.

Prelims Paper Duration Questions Marks
Paper I – General Studies 2 Hours 100 200
Paper II – Aptitude 2 Hours 80 200
Total     400


In General Studies Paper – II, minimum qualifying marks is 33%. You will be selected for Mains exam based total qualifying marks of General Studies Paper – I.

CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude Test) has two papers:

  1. General Studies
  2. General Ability Test

CSAT General Studies Paper 1 Syllabus

CSAT Paper I: 200 Marks; Duration: Two Hours; Number of Questions: 100

  1. Current Affairs: Events of national and international importance
  2. History of India and Indian National Movement
  3. Indian and World Geography: Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  4. Indian Polity and Governance: Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  5. Economic and Social Development: Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  6. General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change (no subject specialization required)
  7. General Science

CSAT Paper-1 Analysis

Topic 2011 2012 2013 2014
History and Culture 13 20 15 21
Economy 18 12 18 6
Polity 17 25 18 13
Geography 11 11 14 15
Environment & Bio-diversity 22 23 22 21
Science & Technology 19 9 13 17
Current Affairs 7
Total 100 100 100 100

CSAT General Ability Test Paper 2 Syllabus

CSAT Paper II: 200 Marks; Duration: Two Hours; Number of Questions: 80

  1. Comprehension
  2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  4. Decision making and problem solving
  5. General mental ability
  6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level)
  7. Data Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)
  8. English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level)

Marking Scheme: Total 80 questions have 200 marks, thus each question is of 2.5 marks. There is a negative marking of 33% or 0.83 marks. Decision making section doesn’t have any negative marking.

Integrated Water Purification

Integrated Water Purification

Atul Kulkarni


This water purification technology is a complete solution to production of potable drinking water in any part of world especially in remote areas from water dissolved with solids –suspended matter. The water can be purified from river, lake, well, ground water. It has a simple installation and the output is a clean drinking water from any brackish water source or any high turbid water source.




External elements

8-20 photovoltaic modules

1-2 windmills

Internal elements

  • Feed pump for raw water
  • sand filter
  • Filtration onto a carton or pouch
  • Dosing pump for sodium hypochlorite ( bleach)
  • Reverse osmosis system for salt/saline / brine or brackish water
  • An output for ‘treated water’ towards the holding tank
  • Electrical control box
  • Energy storing batteries
  • Flexible holding tanks


Customised options

  • Ultra violet generator for bacterial disinfection
  • Manual plastic bagging unit for the storage and distribution of treated water.
  • Ice machine (from 150-450 kg per day)
  • Bottling line
  • PVC holding tanks
  • Drinking water fountains
  • Mineralization
  • Gasification



Brackish water Surface Water
Raw water source Borehole, drilling well, estuary River, well, lake
Treatment specification Organic and inorganic contamination. TDS <2000 ppm(mg/l). Turbidity < 10 NTU Organic and inorganic contamination. TDS < 900 ppm(mg/l). Turbidity < 50 NTU
Quality of produced water Potable water-WHO recommendation Potable water-WHO recommendation
Production capacity 1,100 l/hr-7 m3/j 1,000 l/hr-7 m3/j
Pre-filtration Multi-layered –centrifugal system Multi-layered –centrifugal system
Membrane technology Reverse osmosis Ultra-filtration
Feed pump raw water Suction device 2,300 Vh maximum -25m 2,300 Vh maximum -25m
Energy Supply 5000 W 2820 W
Energy consumption 2.55 KW 1.1 KW
Optional features Submersible pumps

UV sterilisers

PVC Agro holding tanks

Submersible pumps

UV sterilisers

PVC Agro holding tanks






A Review of the Applications of Agent Technology In Traffic and Transportation Systems

A Review of the Applications of Agent Technology

In Traffic and Transportation Systems


The agent computing paradigm is rapidly emerging as one of the powerful technologies for the development of largescale distributed systems to deal with the uncertainty in a dynamic environment. The domain of traffic and transportation systems is well suited for an agent-based approach because transportation systems are usually geographically distributed in dynamic changing environments. Our literature survey shows that the techniques and methods resulting from the field of agent and multiagent systems have been applied to many aspects of traffic and transportation systems, including modeling and simulation, dynamic routing and congestion management, and intelligent traffic control. This paper examines an agent-based approach and its applications in different modes of transportation, including roadway, railway, and air transportation. This paper also addresses some critical issues in developing agent-based traffic control and management systems, such as interoperability, flexibility, and extendibility. Finally, several future research directions toward the successful deployment of agent technology in traffic and transportation systems are discussed.

Existing System:

Proposed System:

This paper we implemented agent applications in traffic and transportation systems. Software agents and their applications in traffic and transportation systems have been studied for over one decade. A number of agent-based applications have already been reported in the literature. These applications propose and investigate different agent-based approaches in various traffic and transportation related areas. The research results clearly demonstrate the potential of using agent technology to improve the performance of traffic and transportation systems. Most agent based applications,


  • The mobile agent technology has been increasingly studied, and its strengths, such as reduced network load, overcoming network latency, supporting disconnected operation, working in heterogeneous environments, and the ability to deploy new software components dynamically,

  • It has the unique ability to transport itself from one system in a network to another. The ability to travel allows a mobile agent to move to a system that contains an object with which the agent wants to interact and then to take advantage of being in the same host or network as the object

Project Implementation Module:

1. Large-scale distributed Network Module:

Agent multiple-hop mobility to build a distributed monitoring system which reconfigures itself as the status of the monitored system changes. Reconfigurability is an essential requirement if the status of the monitored system is dynamic and transient. We have seen that with distributed objects and single hop mobility we can only realize a relatively static monitoring system that may or may not be optimized on the basics of the initial status of the monitored system. As the latter evolves, the distributed monitoring logic may have to be relocated in order to maintain optimality- i.e. When MAs are used as adaptive area monitors their optimal locations depend on the status of the network which may vary considerably in highly dynamic environments.

Fig: large-scale distributed Network

2. Freeway Traffic Management Module:

Freeway agent and an arterial agent, for analysis of congestion and for generation of suitable responses. The freeway agent supports incident management operations for a freeway sub network, and the arterial agent supports operation for the adjacent arterial network. Both agents continuously receive real-time traffic data, incident detection data, and control status of the control devices on the network (signals, ramp meters, and changeable message signs). By performing an analysis of the input data and interacting with a human operator at their local traffic operation center (TOC), each agent generates suitable local control plans, which are aimed at reducing the impact of congestion at a local level. The system provides a dialog facility through a distributed user interface to allow operators at different TOCs to agree on the selection of a global solution.

3.JavaAgent Development Framework (JADE) implementation Module:

Propose MAS to help traffic operators determine the best traffic strategies for dealing with no urban roadway meteorological incidents. The agents in these two systems are implemented using the sending and receiving messages through logical filters of emission, reception, and interception. In , present their approach of dynamic modeling of a disturbance process through a multi agent-based incident model. Through this model, knowledge relative to the network structure and knowledge relative to the network dynamics are gathered to help human regulators in their monitoring tasks.

Mobile agent to move to a system that contains an object with which the agent wants to interact and then to take advantage of being in the same host or network as the object. The mobile agent technology has been increasingly studied, and its strengths, such as reduced network load, overcoming network latency, supporting disconnected operation, working in heterogeneous environments, and the ability to deploy new software components dynamically,

4. Intelligent transportation system (ITS), Multi agent system (MAS) Module:

Agent-based applications in traffic and transportation systems focus on developing MASs that consists of multiple distributed stationary agents. Mobile agent technology has not been widely applied in this area. To demonstrate the great value of mobile agents to intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), integrate mobile agent technology with MASs to enhance the flexibility and adaptability of large-scale traffic control and management systems. Different from stationary agents, mobile agents are able to migrate from one host in a network to other hosts and resume execution in remote hosts. Mobile agents can be created dynamically at runtime and dispatched to destination systems to perform tasks with most updated code and algorithms. Mobility offers great opportunity to address challenges in traffic control and management

MASs usually refers to systems that support stationary agents, and mobile agent systems support mobile agents. An agent system provides mechanisms for agent management, agent communication, and agent directory maintenance. A mobile agent system provides additional mechanisms to support the migration and execution of mobile agents. In an agent system, agencies are the major building blocks and are installed in each node of a networked system,

5. Intelligent control of traffic and transportation Module:

Developed an agent based networked traffic-management system. The agent-based control decomposes a sophisticated control algorithm into simple task-oriented agents that are distributed over a network. The ability of dynamically deploying and replacing control agents as needed allows the network to operate in a “control on demand” mode to adapt to various control scenarios. The system architecture employs a three-level hierarchical architecture. The highest level performs reasoning and planning of task sequences for control agents; the middle level dispatches and coordinates control agents; and the lowest level hosts and runs control agents. The control agents are represented by mobile agents that could migrate from remote traffic control centers to field traffic devices or from one field device to another.

System Requirements:

Hardware Requirements:









Software Requirements:

Front End : Java, Swing , RMI

Tools Used : Eclipse 3.3

Operating System: WindowsXP/7